The University of Southampton
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sb1@ecs.soton.ac.uk

Dr Stuart Boden

Academic Staff

Stuart graduated from the University of Oxford in 2004 with a first class honours degree in Materials Science. He then joined the Nano Group in ECS and in 2009, he was awarded a PhD in Electronics and Electrical Engineering for his work on the development of nanostructured antireflective surfaces for photovoltaics. In 2009, Stuart secured a post-doctoral research fellowship with the Nano Group, funded by Carl Zeiss, to develop applications for the helium ion microscope. Stuart was appointed as a lecturer for ECS in November 2013. He contributes to Southampton’s involvement in the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in New and Sustainable Photovoltaics and is co-investigator on the EPSRC SuperSolar Solar Energy Hub grant. He also manages the focused ion beam facility at the Southampton Nanofabrication Centre in ECS. He teaches semiconductor devices on several undergraduate and MSc modules at ECS and is an admissions tutor for the department. He is a member of the IET and was recently appointed as member of the EPSRC Peer Review Associate College. 

Research

Research interests

Stuart’s research is concentrated in two main areas: Silicon photovoltaics (PV) and focused helium ion beam nanofabrication. 

In the field of silicon PV, he is developing silicon solar cells whereby all the contacts are at the rear of the device. He is investigating new methods of texturing the top surface to capture more light inside these devices whilst maintaining good electrical performance. He is researching low cost manufacturing methods for back contacted silicon solar cells using chemical vapour deposition tools in the ECS cleanrooms. He is also working on ways to add perovskite solar cells to the top of silicon solar cells to create hybrid devices that more efficiently capture the full spectrum of sunlight. 

In the field of focused helium ion beams, he is looking into ways to controllably modify materials at the nanoscale. He collaborates with Oxford Scientific Consultants Ltd. on developing nanoscale patterning techniques using the helium ion microscope and is able to produce structures with feature sizes below 10 nm with a high degree of control for nanoscale electronic device prototyping.

Projects

Professional

Qualifications

MEng, Materials Science, St. Anne's College, University of Oxford

PhD, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Southampton

Publications

Boden, Stuart Andrew (2009) Biomimetic nanostructured surfaces for antireflection in photovoltaics University of Southampton, School of Electronics and Computer Science, Doctoral Thesis , 266pp.

Asadollahbaik, Asa, Boden, Stuart, Molinari, Marc, Cox, Simon and Bagnall, Darren (2010) Modelling biomimetic moth-eye structures for antireflection surfaces Preprint

Boden, S.A. and Bagnall, D.M. (2006) Bio-mimetic subwavelength surface for near-zero reflection sunrise to sunset At 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion. , pp. 1358-1361.

Boden, S.A. and Bagnall, D.M. (2009) Sunrise to sunset optimization of thin film antireflective coatings for encapsulated, planar silicon solar cells Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 17, pp. 241-252. (doi:10.1002/pip.884).

Boden, S.A. and Bagnall, D.M. (2008) Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces Applied Physics Letters, 93, (13), pp. 133108-133110. (doi:10.1063/1.2993231).

Temple, T.L., Boden, S.A. and Bagnall, D.M.. (2009) Plasmonic and Biomimetic light-trapping for photovoltaics At SPIE Optics and Photonics 2009. , 74110l-1.

Boden, S.A. and Bagnall, D.M. (2009) Nanostructured biomimetic moth-eye arrays in silicon by nanoimprint lithography At SPIE Optics and Photonics 2009. , 74010J-1-74010J-12.

Boden, Stuart, Moktadir, Zakaria, Bagnall, Darren and Rutt, Harvey (2010) Nano-patterning of Graphene in the Helium Ion Microscope At 2010 International Symposium on Atom-scale Si Hybrid Nanotechnologies. 01 - 02 Mar 2010.

Boden, Stuart and Bagnall, Darren (2010) Optimization of moth-eye antireflection schemes for silicon solar cells Progress in Photovoltaics: Researh and Applications, 18, (3), pp. 195-203. (doi:10.1002/pip.951).

Boden, S A, Moktadir, Zakaria, Bagnall, Darren, Mizuta, Hiroshi and Rutt, Harvey (2010) Focused Helium Ion Beam Milling and Deposition At 36th International Conference on Micro & Nano Engineering (MNE), Italy. 19 - 22 Sep 2010.

Moktadir, Zakaria, Boden, Stuart, Mizuta, Hiroshi and Rutt, Harvey (2010) Graphene for Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems At 21st Micromechanics and Micro Systems Europe Workshop (MME2010), Netherlands. 26 - 29 Sep 2010.

Moktadir, Zakaria, Boden, Stuart, Ghiass, Mohammad Adel, Rutt, Harvey and Mizuta, Hiroshi (2011) U-shaped bilayer graphene channel transistor with very high Ion/Ioff ratio Electronics Letters, 47, (3)

Moktadir, Zakaria, Boden, Stuart, Ghiass, Mohammad Adel, Rutt, Harvey, Mizuta, Hiroshi, Miyazaki, H, Li, S-L and Tsukagoshi, K (2011) A graphene bilayer channel transistor with a very high Ion/Ioff ratio, graphene single electron devices and graphene nano-mechanical structures for NEMS At UK-Japan Workshop on Graphene. 03 - 04 Feb 2011.

Boden, Stuart, Moktadir, Zakaria, Bagnall, Darren, Rutt, Harvey and Mizuta, Hiroshi (2011) Beam-induced damage to graphene in the helium ion microscope At Graphene 2011 Conference, Spain. 11 - 14 Apr 2011.

Payne, David N.R., Boden, Stuart, Clark, Owain, Delahoy, Alan and Bagnall, Darren (2010) Characterization of experimental textured ZnO:Al films for thin film solar cell applications and comparison with commercial and plasmonic alternatives At 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. 20 - 25 Jun 2010.

Plotkin, M., Hod, I., Zaben, A., Boden, S. A., Bagnall, D. M., Galushko, D. and Bergman, D. J. (2010) Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) Naturwissenschaften, 97, pp. 1067-1076.

Gammon, P. M., Perez-Tomas, A., Jennings, M. R., Shah, V. A., Boden, S. A., Davis, M. C., Burrows, S. E., Wilson, N. R., Roberts, G. J., Covington, J. A. and Mawby, P. A. (2010) Interface characteristics of n-n and p-n Ge/SiC heterojunction diodes formed by molecular beam epitaxy deposition Journal of Applied Physics, 107, (124512), pp. 1-8.

Boden, Stuart and Bagnall, Darren (2010) Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting In, Energy Harvesting for Autonomous Systems. Artech House pp. 45-85.

Mizuta, Hiroshi, Husain, Muhammad, Alkhalil, Feras, Lin, Yun, Moktadir, Zakaria, Boden, Stuart, Tsuchiya, Yoshishige, Lambert, Nick, Ferguson, Andrew and Chong, Harold (2011) Silicon nanofabrication for QIP in Southampton (Invited Talk) At UK Silicon QIP Meeting.

Papasimakis, N., Nikolaenko, A.E., Luo, Z., Shen, Z.X., De Angelis, F., Di Fabrizio, E., Boden, S.A., Uchino, T. and Zheludev, N.I. (2011) Tuning metamaterial properties by a single-layer of graphene At Nanometa 2011, Austria. 03 - 06 Jan 2011.

Pearson, Andrew J., Boden, Stuart Andrew, Bagnall, Darren M., Lidzey, David G. and Rodenburg, Cornelia (2011) Imaging the bulk nanoscale morphology of organic solar cell blends using helium ion microscopy Nano Letters, 11, (10), pp. 4275-4281. (doi:10.1021/nl202269n).

Wang, Yudong, Boden, S.A., Bagnall, D.M., Rutt, H.N. and de Groot, C.H. (2012) Helium ion beam milling to create a nano-structured domain wall magnetoresistance spin valve Nanotechnology, 23, pp. 395302-1. (doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/39/395302).

Asadollahbaik, Asa, Boden, Stuart, Cox, S.J. and Bagnall, D.M. (2012) Moth-eye antireflective surfaces: specular reflection as a function of angle of incidence and azimuth At PVSAT-8, Newcastle, UK. 02 - 04 Apr 2012.

Boden, Stuart A., Franklin, Thomas, Scipioni, Larry, Bagnall, Darren M. and Rutt, Harvey N. (2012) Ionoluminescence in the helium ion microscope Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18, (6), pp. 1253-1262. (doi:10.1017/S1431927612013463).

Stavroulakis, Petros I., Boden, Stuart A., Johnson, Thomas and Bagnall, Darren M. (2013) Suppression of backscattered diffraction from sub-wavelength ‘moth-eye’ arrays Optics Express, 21, (1), pp. 1-11.

Quang, Ngo Khoa, Miyauchi, Yoshihiro, Mizutani, Goro, Charlton, Martin, Chen, Ruiqi, Boden, Stuart and Rutt, Harvey (2013) Optical second harmonic generation from V-shaped chromium nanohole arrays At EM-NANO 2013 (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, JAIST), Japan. 17 - 20 Jun 2013.

Quang, Ngo Khoa, Miyauchi, Yoshihiro, Mizutani, Goro, Charlton, Martin D., Chen, Ruiqi, Boden, Stuart and Rutt, Harvey (2014) Optical second harmonic generation from V-shaped chromium nanohole arrays [in special issue: JJAP Special Issue] Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 53, (2S), T21713. (doi:10.7567/JJAP.53.02BC11).

Wang, Yudong, Abb, Martina, Boden, Stuart, de Groot, C.H. and Muskens, Otto L. (2013) Controlled fabrication of plasmonic nanogaps using electron beam lithography and helium-ion beam milling At 39th International Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering, United Kingdom. 16 - 19 Sep 2013.

Wang, Yudong, Boden, Stuart, Bagnall, Darren, Rutt, H.N. and de Groot, C.H. (2012) Helium ion beam milling and electron beam lithography to create sub-20nm sized domain wall magnetoresistance spin-valve At 38th International Micro & Nano Engineering Conference, France. 16 - 20 Sep 2012.

Asadollahbaik, Asa, Boden, Stuart, Charlton, M.D.B., Payne, D.N.R., Cox, S.J. and Bagnall, D.M. (2014) Reflectance properties of silicon moth-eyes in response to variations in angle of incidence, polarisation and azimuth orientation Optics Express, 22, (S2), a402-a415. (doi:10.1364/OE.22.00A402).

Banakar, Mehdi, Boden, Stuart A., Asadollahbaik, Asa, Payne, D.N.N. and Bagnall, D M (2014) Angle-resolved reflection and scattering studies of sub-wavelength surface mie resonators At PVSAT-10: 10th Photovoltaic Science Application and Technology Conference, United Kingdom. 23 - 25 Apr 2014.

Banakar, Mehdi, Boden, Stuart Andrew, Asadollahbaik, Asa, Payne, D.N.N. and Bagnall, D M (2014) Angle-resolved reflection spectroscopy of sub-wavelength surface mie resonators At Solar14: 52nd annual Australian Solar Council Industry Conference & Exhibition, Australia. 08 - 09 May 2014.

Wang, Yudong, Abb, Martina, Boden, Stuart A., Aizpurua, Javier, de Groot, C.H. and Muskens, Otto L. (2013) Ultrafast Nonlinear control of progressively loaded, single plasmonic nanoantennas fabricated using helium ion milling Nano Letters, 13, (11), pp. 5647-5653. (doi:10.1021/nl403316z). (PMID:24127754).

Wang, Yudong, Abb, Martina, Boden, Stuart A., Aizpurua, Javier, De Groot, C.H. and Muskens, Otto L. (2014) Ultrafine control of partially loaded single plasmonic nanoantennas fabricated using e-beam lithography and helium ion beam milling At CLEO: QELS Fundamental Science: Photonic Crystals and Complex Plasmonic Nanostructures (FF1K), United States. 08 - 13 Jun 2014. , FF1K.1-FF1K.2. (doi:10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2014.FF1K.1).

Kiang, Kian Shen, Zekonyte, Jurgita, Johnston, David A., Beers, Stephen A., Cragg, Mark S., Boden, Stuart A., Anteney, Iain and Chong, Harold M.H. (2014) Experimental studies on the effects of surface treatment materials on cell trapping micro-cavities template At 40th Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering, Switzerland. 22 - 26 Sep 2014.

Kalhor, Nima, Boden, Stuart A. and Mizuta, Hiroshi (2014) Sub-10nm patterning by focused He-ion beam milling for fabrication of downscaled graphene nano devices Microelectronic Engineering, 114, pp. 70-77. (doi:10.1016/j.mee.2013.09.018).

Lawrence, Matthew J., Kumar, Sendhil, Hawkins, Karl, Boden, Stuart, Rutt, Harvey, Mills, Gavin, Sabra, Ahmed, Morris, Roger H.K., Davidson, Simon J., Badiei, Nafieseh, Brown, Martin R., Williams, Phylip R. and Evans, Phillip A. (2014) A new structural biomarker that quantifies and predicts changes in clot strength and quality in a model of progressive haemodilution Thrombosis Research, 134, (2), pp. 488-494. (doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2014.05.039). (PMID:24965661).

Banakar, Mehdi, Aghdaei, Sara, Boden, S.A., Sari, Ibrahim and Bagnall, D.M. (2012) Silicon nanowires by self-organised reactive ion etching At 8th Photovoltaic Science Applications and Technology Conference, United Kingdom. 02 - 04 Apr 2012.

Mughal, W.J., Mughal, H.A., Laffoley, A.G., Bagnall, D.M., Cowern, N.E.B., Simdyankin, S. and Boden, S.A. (2014) A high-efficiency, low-cost IBC cell using doped laser cut back-side contacts At 10th Photovoltaic Science Applications and Technology Conference, United Kingdom. 23 - 25 Apr 2014.

Nawabjan, A., Tarazona, A., Bagnall, D.M. and Boden, S.A. (2014) Development of epitaxial interdigitated back contact solar cell by HWCVD process At 10th Photovoltaic Science Applications and Technology Conference, United Kingdom. 23 - 25 Apr 2014.

Crudgington, L.J., Rind, M.A., Boden, S.A. and Bagnall, D.M. (2014) High performance hetero-junction solar cells with plasmonic light trapping At 10th Photovoltaic Science Applications and Technology Conference, United Kingdom. 23 - 25 Apr 2014.

Rodenburg, C., Jepson, M.A.E., Boden, Stuart A. and Bagnall, Darren M. (2014) Helium ion microscopy and energy selective scanning electron microscopy – two advanced microscopy techniques with complementary applications Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 522, p. 12049. (doi:10.1088/1742-6596/522/1/012049).

Moktadir, Zakaria, Mizuta, Hiroshi, Boden, Stuart A., Kalhor, Nima, Hang, Shuojin, Schmidt, Marek E., Cuong, Nguyen Tien, Chi, Dam Hieu, Otsuka, Nobuo, Muruganathan, Manoharan, Tsuchiya, Yoshishige, Chong, Harold, Rutt, Harvey N. and Bagnall, Darren M. (2012) Fabrication and ab initio study of downscaled graphene nanoelectronic devices In, Pribat, Didier, Lee, Young-Hee and Razeghi, Manijeh (eds.) Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Associated Devices V. Bellingham, US, SPIE p. 846206. (Proceedings of SPIE, 8462). (doi:10.1117/12.956439).

Mughall, W.J., Mughall, H.A., Laffoley, A.G., Tarazona, A., Simdyankin, S., Bagnall, D M, Boden, Stuart A. and Cowern, N.E.B. (2014) HELICS cell: laser-cut grooves to create high-efficiency, low cost IBC solar cell At 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, United States. 08 - 13 Jun 2014.

Boden, Stuart A. and Bagnall, Darren M. (2012) Moth?eye antireflective structures In, Encyclopaedia of Nanotechnology. New York, US, Springer pp. 1467-1477. (doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9751-4_262).

Robertson, Calum, Beanland, Richard, Boden, Stuart A., Hector, Andrew Lee, Kashtiban, Reza J., Sloan, Jeremy, Smith, David C. and Walcarius, Alain (2015) Ordered mesoporous silica films with pores oriented perpendicular to a titanium nitride substrate Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 17, (6), pp. 4763-4770. (doi:10.1039/c4cp05730a).

Nikolaenko, A.E., Atmatzakis, E., Papasimakis, N., Luo, Z., Shen, Z.X., Boden, S.A., Ashburn, P. and Zheludev, N.I. (2012) Terahertz bandwidth optical nonlinearity of graphene metamaterial At CLEO/QELS, United States. 06 - 11 May 2012. 2 pp.

Boden, Stuart A. and Temple, Tristan L. (2014) Light capture In, Irvine, Stuart J.C. (eds.) Materials Challenges: Inorganic Photovoltaic Solar Energy. London, GB, Royal Society of Chemistry pp. 247-296. (RSC Energy and Environment Series, 12). (doi:10.1039/9781849733465-00247).

Shi, Xiaoqing, Prewett, Philip, Huq, Ejaz, Bagnall, Darren M., Robinson, Alex P.G. and Boden, Stuart A. (2015) Helium ion beam lithography on fullerene molecular resists for sub-10 nm patterning At 41st International Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering, Netherlands. 21 - 24 Sep 2015. 1 pp.

Shi, Xiaoqing, Prewett, Philip, Huq, Ejaz, Bagnall, Darren M. and Boden, Stuart A. (2015) Proximity effect quantification and dose optimisation for high resolution helium ion beam lithography At 41st International Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering, Netherlands. 1 pp.

Nawabjan, Amirjan, Tarazona, Antulio, Bagnall, Darren M. and Boden, Stuart A. (2015) Development of epitaxial interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cell as a test platform for novel antireflection and light-trapping schemes At 11th Photovoltaic Science Applications and Technology Conference (PVSAT-11), United Kingdom. 15 - 17 Apr 2015. , pp. 45-48.

Baksh, Peter D., Odstrčil, Michal, Parsons, A.D., Card, Rachel, Boden, Stuart, Brocklesby, William and Frey, J.G. (2015) Towards laser driven table-top coherent diffractive X-ray microscopy of cultured hippocampal neurons At BIO-NANO-Photonics 2015, United Kingdom. 07 - 09 Sep 2015. 1 pp.

Odstrčil, Michal, Baksh, Peter, Kim, Hyunsu, Boden, Stuart, Brocklesby, William and Frey, Jeremy (2015) Ultra-broadband ptychography with self-consistent coherence estimation from a high harmonic source At X-Ray Lasers and Coherent X-Ray Sources: Development and Applications XI, United States. 09 - 13 Aug 2015. , p. 958912. (doi:10.1117/12.2188166).

Chee, Augustus K.W. and Boden, Stuart A. (2015) Dopant profiling based on scanning electron and helium ion microscopy Ultramicroscopy, pp. 1-18. (doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2015.10.003).

Baksh, Peter, Odstrčil, Michal, Kim, Hyunsu, Boden, Stuart, Frey, Jeremy and Brocklesby, William (2016) Wide-field broadband EUV transmission ptychography using a high harmonic source Optics Letters, pp. 1-5. (doi:10.1364/OL.41.001317).

Oo, S.Z., Silva, G., Carpignano, F., Noual, A., Pechstedt, K., Mateos, L., Grant-Jacob, J.A., Brocklesby, W.S., Horak, P., Charlton, M., Boden, S.A. and Melvin, Tracy (2016) A nanoporous gold membrane for sensing applications Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research, pp. 1-8. (doi:10.1016/j.sbsr.2016.01.001).

Grant-Jacob, James A., Oo, Swe Zin, Carpignano, Francesca, Boden, Stuart A., Brocklesby, William S., Charlton, Martin D.B. and Melvin, Tracy (2015) Design and fabrication of a 3D-structured gold film with nanopores for local electric field enhancement in the pore Nanotechnology, 27, (6), pp. 1-11. (doi:10.1088/0957-4484/27/6/065302).

Odstrčil, M., Baksh, P.D., Boden, S.A., Brocklesby, W.S. and Frey, J.G. (2015) Laser driven table-top coherent EUV source for high resolution diffractive microscopy At Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Netherlands. 05 - 07 Oct 2015.

Shi, Xiaoqing, Prewett, Philip, Huq, Ejaz, Bagnall, Darren, Robinson, Alex and Boden, Stuart (2016) Helium ion beam lithography on fullerene molecular resists for sub-10 nm patterning Microelectronic Engineering, pp. 1-5. (doi:10.1016/j.mee.2016.02.045).

Odstrčil, Michal, Baksh, Peter, Boden, Stuart, Card, Rachel, Chad, John, Frey, Jeremy and Brocklesby, William (2016) Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging with orthogonal probe relaxation Optics Express, 24, (8), pp. 8360-8369. (doi:10.1364/OE.24.008360).

Wood, Graham, Zhao, Chun, Pu, Suan-Hui, Boden, Stuart, Sari, Ibrahim and Kraft, Michael (2016) Mass sensor utilising the mode-localisation effect in an electrostatically-coupled MEMS resonator pair fabricated using an SOI process [in special issue: Micro/Nano Devices and Systems 2015] Microelectronic Engineering, 159, pp. 169-173. (doi:10.1016/j.mee.2016.03.035).

Rahman, Tasmiat, Bonilla, Ruy, Nawabjan, Amirjan, Wilshaw, Peter and Boden, Stuart (2016) Passivation of all-angle black surfaces for silicon solar cells Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 160, pp. 444-453. (doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.10.044).

Nawabjan, Amirjan, Rahman, Tasmiat, Tarazona, Antulio, Bagnall, Darren and Boden, Stuart (2015) Epitaxial Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) solar cell test platform for novel light trapping schemes At Proceedings of the 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PVSEC), Germany. 14 - 18 Sep 2015. , pp. 783-787. (doi:10.4229/EUPVSEC20152015-2AV.3.32).

Rahman, Tasmiat, Nawabjan, Amirjan, Tarazona, Antulio, Bagnall, Darren M. and Boden, Stuart (2016) Junction formation with HWCVD and TCAD model of an epitaxial back-contact solar cell IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 6, (6), pp. 1-7. (doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2016.2598277).

Debnath, Kapil, Khokhar, Ali, Boden, Stuart, Oo, Swe, Chong, Harold, Reed, Graham and Saito, Shin (2016) Low-loss slot waveguides with silicon (111) surfaces realized using anisotropic wet etching Frontiers in Materials, pp. 1-10. (doi:10.3389/fmats.2016.00051).

Quang, N.K., Miyauchi, Y., Mizutani, G., Charlton, M., Chen, R.Q., Boden, S. and Rutt, H. (2014) Optical second harmonic generation of V-shaped chromium nanoholes-dependence on the structure parameters of the nanoholes [in special issue: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Atomic Level Characterization for New Materials and Devices (ALC 2013)] Surface and Interface Analysis, 46, (12-13), pp. 1240-1244. (doi:10.1002/sia.5643).

Mizuta, Hiroshi, Moktadiri, Zakaria, Boden, Stuart, Kalhori, Nima, Hang, Shuojin, Schmidt, Marek, Cuong, Nguyen Tien, Chi, Dam Hieu, Otsuka, Nobuo, Manoharan, Muruagnathan, Tsuchiya, Yoshishige, Chong, Harold, Rutt, Harvey and Bagnall, Darren (2012) Downscaled graphene nanodevices: fabrication and ab initio study At IEEE 11th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT), China. 29 Oct - 01 Nov 2012. 4 pp. (doi:10.1109/ICSICT.2012.6467940).

Crudgington, Lee, Rahman, Tasmiat and Boden, Stuart (2016) Development of amorphous silicon solar cells with plasmonic light scattering Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, pp. 1-6.

Carpignano, Francesca, Silva, Gloria, Noual, Adnane, Pechstedt, Katrin, Grant-Jacob, James, Brocklesby, Bill, Horak, Peter, Boden, Stuart and Melvin, Tracy (2016) Nanopores within 3D-structured gold film for sensing applications At 18th Italian National Conference on Photonic Technologies (Fotonica 2016), Italy. 06 - 08 Jun 2016. (doi:10.1049/cp.2016.0933).

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