Sabeur et al (1995-2002) simulated stable free surface CFD flows at solid structures using the VOF technique. Further simulations of compressible air-fluid flows have been successfully achieved on porous structures more recently (Sabeur et al 2016). The recent simulations showed clear evidence of the formation of compressed oscillatory air bubbles with high accelerations at the porous structure-water interfaces. A wide range of magnitudes of impact forces and air oscillatory frequencies were measured. These were observed by varying the complexity of the 3D geometry of the porous structure. These findings show that it is possible to control the corresponding high magnitude impact forces by intelligently re-designing the porous structures. The intelligent re-design of structures is not straightforward but the aim is that it should not compromise on the level of flooding through the structural interfaces. The remaining controlled energy of the flow can be safely harvested for the production of clean electricity at coastal defences in the future. This project is in collaboration with the Electrical Engineering Group at ECS. An early experimental design will be developed with strategies concerning 1- Video sensing and 3D flow reconstruction on complex porous structures; 2- Intensive CFD numerical simulations with big spectral data analytics; and 3- Design specification of sustainable harvesters at structures.
References:  Z.A.Sabeur, W.Roberts, and A.J.Cooper. (1995). Development and Use of an Advanced Numerical Model using the VOF Method for the Design of Coastal Structures, In âNumerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics Vâ, edited by K.W.Morton and M.J.Baines, Oxford University Press, pp 565-573.  Z.A.Sabeur, J.E.Cohen, J.R.Stephens and A.E.P.Veldman. (1998). Investigation on Free Surface Flow Oscillatory Impact Pressures with the Volume of Fluid Method. In âNumerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics VIâ, edited by M.J.Baines, Oxford University Press, pp 493-498.  Z. A. Sabeur, R.B. Mayon, M. Tan, K. Djidjeli (2016). Analysis of fluid flow impact oscillatory pressures with air entrapment at structures, International Conference on Coastal Engineering (ICCE), American Society of Civil Engineers, Antalya, Turkey, November 17-20, 2016.  R.B. Mayon, Z. A. Sabeur, M. Tan, K. Djidjeli (2016). Investigation of Wave Impacts on Porous Structures for Coastal Defences, 12th International Conference on Hydrodynamics (ICHD), 18-23 September 2016, Delft, Netherland. Hanbyul Joo, Hyun Soo Park, and Yaser Sheikh. MAP Visibility Estimation for Large-Scale Dynamic 3D Reconstruction, In CVPR, 2014. (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~hanbyulj/14/visibility.html)  Cranny AWJ, Harris NRH and White NM. (2015) Screen-printable porous glass: a new material for electrochemical sensors. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 26(7), 4557-4564  Zhu D, Glynne-Jones P, White NM, Harris NR, Tudor MJ, Torah R, Almusallam S and Beeby SP, 2013, Screen printed piezoelectric films for energy harvesting, Advances in Applied Electroceramics: Structural, Functional and Bioceramics, 112(2), 79-84.