The University of Southampton

Research

Publications

Khelifa, B.M., Carlin, H., Carter, J., Silanovski, A., Thomas, G. and Newman, S.J. (2002) Pilot workload assessment using flight simulation. At 28th European Rotorcraft Forum 28th European Rotorcraft Forum. 17 - 20 Sep 2002. pp. 1-15.

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2004) Automated person recognition by walking and running via model-based approaches. Pattern Recognition, 37 (5), 1057-1072.

Cunado, David, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Automatic extraction and description of human gait models for recognition purposes. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 90 (1), 1-41. (doi:10.1016/S1077-3142(03)00008-0).

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2005) Force field feature extraction for ear biometrics. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 98 (3), 491-512.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Force field energy functionals for image feature extraction. Image and Vision Computing, 20 (5-6), 311-317. (doi:10.1016/S0262-8856(02)00003-3).

Hayfron-Acquah, James, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Automatic gait recognition by symmetry analysis. [in special issue: Audio- and Video-based Biometric Person Authentication (AVBPA 2001)] Pattern Recognition Letters, 24 (13), 2175-2183. (doi:10.1016/S0167-8655(03)00086-2).

Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (2006) Automatic recognition by gait. Proceedings of the IEEE, 94 (11), 2013-2024. (doi:10.1109/JPROC.2006.886018).

Carter, J.N., Smart, R.G., Tropper, A.C., Hanna, D.C., Davey, S.T. and Szebesta, D. (1992) High efficiency amplification and low threshold lasing at 0.8µm in a thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre. At CLEO'92: Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics CLEO'92: Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics, United States. 10 - 15 May 1992.

Smart, R.G., Carter, J.N., Tropper, A.C., Hanna, D.C., Carter, S.F. and Szebesta, D. (1991) A high gain Tm3+ fluorozirconate fibre amplifier operating in the 0.8µm region. At 3rd European Quantum Electronics Conference & 10th National Quantum Electronics Conference 3rd European Quantum Electronics Conference & 10th National Quantum Electronics Conference, United Kingdom. 27 - 30 Aug 1991.

Smart, R.G., Carter, J.N., Tropper, A.C. and Hanna, D.C. (1991) Infrared thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre lasers. At CLEO'91: Conference Lasers and Electro-optics CLEO'91: Conference Lasers and Electro-optics, United States. 01 Jan 1991.

Carter, J.N., Smart, R.G., Tropper, A.C. and Hanna, D.C. (1991) Thulium doped fluorozirconate fibre lasers. At 7th International symposium on halide glasses 7th International symposium on halide glasses, Australia. 01 Mar 1991.

Carter, J.N., Hanna, D.C., Smart, R.G. and Tropper, A.C. (1991) Thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre lasers operating at around 0.8µm, 1.47µm, 1.9µm and 2.3µm pumped at 0.79µm. At Advanced Solid State Lasers Conference (ASSL 91) Advanced Solid State Lasers Conference (ASSL 91), United States. 01 Jan 1991.

Smart, Richard G., Carter, John N., Tropper, Anne C. and Hanna, David C. (1991) Fluoride fibre lasers. In, Digonnet, Michel J.F. (ed.) Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II. Fibre Lasers Sources and Amplifiers 2 Bellingham, US. The International Society for Optical Engineering, pp. 158-165. (Proceedings of SPIE, 1373) ,

Kishi, N., Carter, J.N., Mottahadeh, R., Morkel, P.R., Smart, R.G., Seeds, A.J., Roberts, J.S., Button, C.C., Payne, D.N., Tropper, A.C. and Hanna, D.C. (1992) Actively mode-locked and passively Q-switched operation of a thulium-doped fibre laser using a multi-quantum-well asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator. Electronics Letters, 28 (2), 175-177.

Tropper, A.C., Carter, J.N., Lauder, R.D.T., Hanna, D.C., Davey, S.T. and Szebesta, D. (1994) Analysis of blue and red laser performance of the infrared-pumped praseodymium-doped fluoride fiber laser. Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 11 (5), 886-893. (doi:10.1364/JOSAB.11.000886).

Carter, J.N., Smart, R.G., Tropper, A.C. and Hanna, D.C. (1992) Thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre lasers. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 140, 10-15.

Ross, G.W., Carter, J.N., James, S.W., Eason, R.W., Kashyap, R., Davey, S.T. and Szebesta, D. (1993) Phase conjugate fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 800nm. Optics Letters, 17 (23), 1676-1678. (doi:10.1364/OL.17.001676).

Carter, J.N., Smart, R.G., Tropper, A.C., Hanna, D.C., Davey, S.T. and Szebesta, D. (1992) High efficiency low-threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8µm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre. Electronics Letters, 28 (1), 58-59. (doi:10.1049/el:19920036).

Carter, J.N., Smart, R.G., Tropper, A.C., Hanna, D.C., Carter, S.F. and Szebesta, D. (1991) Theoretical and experimental investigation of a resonantly pumped thulium doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifier at around 810 nm. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 9 (11), 1548-1553. (doi:10.1109/50.97645).

Smart, R.G., Carter, J.N., Tropper, A.C., Hanna, D.C., Carter, S.F. and Szebesta, D. (1991) A 20dB gain thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre amplifier operating at around 0.8µm. Electronics Letters, 27 (13), 1123-1124.

Carter, J.N., Smart, R.G., Hanna, D.C. and Tropper, A.C. (1990) Lasing and amplification in the 0.8µm region in thulium doped fluorozirconate fibres. Electronics Letters, 26 (21), 1759-1761. (doi:10.1049/el:19901130).

Carter, J.N., Smart, R.G., Hanna, D.C. and Tropper, A.C. (1990) CW diode-pumped operation of a 1.97µm thulium doped fluorozirconate fibre laser. Electronics Letters, 26 (9), 599-600. (doi:10.1049/el:19900394).

Mohammad, M., Moore, E., Carter, J.N., Shadle, C.H. and Gunn, S.R. (1997) Using MRI to Image the Moving Vocal Tract during Speech. At Eurospeech '97 Eurospeech '97. 2027--2030.

Benn, D.E., Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (1997) Robust Eye Centre Extraction using the Hough Transform. Bigun, J., Chollet, G. and Borgefors, G. (eds.) At Proceedings of 1st Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication Proceedings of 1st Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication. 3--9.

Cunado, D., Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (1997) Using gait as a biometric, via phase-weighted magnitude spectra. Bigun, J., Chollet, G. and Borgefors, G. (eds.) At Proceedings of 1st Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication Proceedings of 1st Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication. 95--102.

Shadle, C.H., Carter, J.N., Monks, T.P. and Field, J. (1994) Depth Measurement of Face and Palate by Structured Light s.n. ,

Davies, C.J., Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (1994) Acquisition of Surface Normal Vectors via Coloured Spot Projection s.n. ,

Davies, C.J., Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (1995) A New Hough Transform Mapping for 3D Imaging via Coloured Spots s.n. ,

Shadle, C.H., Mair, S.J., Carter, J.N. and Millner, N. (1995) The effect of vowel context on acoustic characteristics of [c,x] s.n. ,

Carter, J.N., Shadle, C.H. and Davies, C.J. (1996) On the use of structured light in speech research. At ETRW - 4th Speech Prod. Seminar ETRW - 4th Speech Prod. Seminar. 229--232.

Shadle, C.H., Mair, S.J. and Carter, J.N. (1996) Acoustic characteristics of the front fricatives [f, v, th, eth]. At ETRW - 4th Speech Prod. Seminar ETRW - 4th Speech Prod. Seminar. 193--196.

Shadle, C.H., Mair, S.J., Carter, J.N. and Millner, N. (1995) The effect of vowel context on acoustic characteristics of [c, x]. At Proc. of the XIIIth Int. Cong. of Phonetic Sciences Proc. of the XIIIth Int. Cong. of Phonetic Sciences.

Monks, T.P. and Carter, J. (1995) Measuring the shape of time-varying objects. University of Southampton, Electronics and Computer Science, Doctoral Thesis.

Chiu, W.S.C., Shadle, C.H. and Carter, J.N. (1995) Quantitative measures of the palate using enhanced electropalatography. European J. Disordered Communication, 30, 149--160.

Shadle, C.H., Carter, J.N., Monks, T.P. and Field, J.K. (1993) Depth Measurement of Face and Palate by Structured Light. At Proc. of Eurospeech '93 Proc. of Eurospeech '93. pp. 1745-1748.

Hemus, M.D. and Carter, J.N. (1993) Parameterisation of Simple Geometrical Lambertian Surfaces using Photometric Stereo. Chetverikov, D. and Kropatsch, W. (eds.) At Lecture Notes in Computer Science Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 523--527.

Monks, T.P. and Carter, J.N. (1993) Improved stripe matching for colour encoded structured light. Chetverikov, D. and Kropatsch, W. (eds.) At Lecture Notes in Computer Science Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 476--485.

Carter, J.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1990) An Integrated Biometric Database. At Colloq. on Electronic Images and Image Processing in Security and Forensic Science Colloq. on Electronic Images and Image Processing in Security and Forensic Science. 4/1--4/5.

Carter, J.N., Matthews, T.R. and Shadle, C.H. (1990) A three-Dimensional measurement system for speech research based on structured light. At Applications of Digital Image Processing XIII Applications of Digital Image Processing XIII. 378--387.

Badin, P., Shadle, C.H., Pham Thi Ngoc, Y., Carter, J.N., Chiu, W.S.C., Scully, C. and Stromberg, K. (1994) Frication and aspiration noise sources: Contribution of experimental data to articulatory synthesis. At Proc. Int. Conf. on Speech and Language Processing Proc. Int. Conf. on Speech and Language Processing. 163--166.

Nixon, M.S., Carter, J.N. and Jia, X.. (1992) On Biometric Systems. At Colloq. on Systems Aspects of Machine Vision Systems Colloq. on Systems Aspects of Machine Vision Systems. 4/1-4/4.

Monks, T.P., Carter, J.N. and Shadle, C.H. (1992) A Real-Time 3-D Digitization System for Speech Research. At Int. Conf. on Biomedical Image Processing and Three-Dimensional Microscopy Int. Conf. on Biomedical Image Processing and Three-Dimensional Microscopy. p. 9.

Monks, T.P., Carter, J.N. and Shadle, C.H. (1992) Colour-Encoded Structured Light for Digitisation of Real-Time 3D Data. At 4th Int. Conf. on Image Processing 4th Int. Conf. on Image Processing. 327--330.

Carter, J.N., Monks, T.P., Paulson, C.N. and Shadle, C.H. (1993) The design and development of a 4D Scanner. Tescher, A.G. (ed.) At Applications of Digital Image Processing XV Applications of Digital Image Processing XV. 149--159.

Carter, J.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1993) On the Potential for Computer Vision in Group Project Work. At Colloq. on The Teaching of Digital Image Processing in UK Universities Colloq. on The Teaching of Digital Image Processing in UK Universities. 8/1--8/4.

Badin, P., Scadle, C.H., Pham, T.N.Y., Carter, J.N., Chiu, W.S.C., Scully, A. and Stromberg, K. (1994) Frication and Aspiration Noise Sources: Contribution of experimental data to articulatory synthesis. At Proc. Int. Conf. on Spoken Language Processing Proc. Int. Conf. on Spoken Language Processing.

Shadle, C.H., Mohammad, M., Carter, J.N. and Jackson, P.J.B. (1999) Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging: new tools for speech research. At 14th Int. Cong. Phon. Sci. 14th Int. Cong. Phon. Sci.. pp. 623-6.

Nixon, M. S., Carter, J. N., Cunado, D., Huang, P. S. and Stevenage, S. V. (1999) Automatic Gait Recognition. Jain, A. K., Bolle, R. and Pankanti, S. (eds.) In Biometrics: Personal Identification in Networked Society. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 231-250.

(1998) Electronic Proceedings of the ninth British Machine Vision Conference BMVC98. Carter, J. N. and Nixon, M. S. (eds.)

Ng, L. S., Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (1998) Combining Feature Sets for Texture Extraction. At Proc. IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation Proc. IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. pp. 103-108.

Cunado, David, Nash, Jason M., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1999) Gait Extraction and Description by Evidence-Gathering. At Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication AVBPA99 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication AVBPA99. pp. 43-48.

Benn, D. E., Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (1999) Extending Concentricity Analysis by Deformable Templates for Improved Eye Extraction. At Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication AVBPA99 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication AVBPA99. pp. 1-6.

Cunado, David, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1998) Extracting a Human Gait Model for use as a Biometric. At IEE Colloquium "Computer Vision for Virtual Human Modelling" IEE Colloquium "Computer Vision for Virtual Human Modelling". 11/1-11/4.

Nixon, Mark S., Carter, John N., Nash, Jason M., Huang, Ping S., Cunado, David and Stevenage, Sarah V. (1999) Automatic Gait Recognition. At IEE Colloquium "Motion Analysis and Tracking" IEE Colloquium "Motion Analysis and Tracking". 3/1-3/6.

Ng, L. S., Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (1998) Combined Feature Sets for Texture Extraction. Singh, S. (ed.) At Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Pattern Recognition ICAPR '98 Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Pattern Recognition ICAPR '98. pp. 35-44.

Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) On Measuring Gait Signatures which are Invariant to their Trajectory. Measurement and Control, 32 (9), 265-269.

Cunado, David, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1999) Automatic Gait Recognition via Model-Based Evidence Gathering. O'Gorman, Larry and Shellhammer, Steve (eds.) At Proceedings AutoID '99: IEEE Workshop on Identification Advanced Technologies Proceedings AutoID '99: IEEE Workshop on Identification Advanced Technologies. pp. 27-30.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1999) Force Field Energy Functionals for Image Feature Extraction. Pridmore, Tony and Elliman, David (eds.) At Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 1999, BMVC99 Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 1999, BMVC99. pp. 604-613.

Nash, Jason M., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1997) Velocity Hough Transform: A new technique for dynamic feature extraction. At Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP 97 Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP 97. pp. 386-389.

Nash, Jason M., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1998) Extraction of Moving Articulated-Objects by Evidence Gathering. Lewis, Paul H. and Nixon, Mark S. (eds.) At Proceedings of the Ninth British Machine Vision Conference BMVC98 Proceedings of the Ninth British Machine Vision Conference BMVC98. pp. 609-618.

Nash, Jason M., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1997) Dynamic Feature Extraction via the Velocity Hough Transform. Pattern Recognition Letters, 18 (10), 1035-1047.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2000) Automatic Ear Recognition by Force Field Transformations. At IEE Colloquium: Visual Biometrics IEE Colloquium: Visual Biometrics. 8/1-8/5.

Hurley, D. J., Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (1999) Force Field Energy Functionals for Image Feature Extraction. Pridmore, T. and Elliman, D. (eds.) At Proc. 10th British Machine Vision Conference BMVC99 Proc. 10th British Machine Vision Conference BMVC99. pp. 604-613.

Ng, Liang Shing, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1999) Combining Multiple Features in Texture Classification. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Nash, Jason M., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) Evidence Gathering for Dynamic Feature Extraction. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Murray, D C, Siabi-Shahrivar, N, Evans, A G R, Redman-White, W, Carter, J C and Altrip, J L (1989) Increased low frequency noise generating defects in today's CMOS/BICMOS technologies. At European Materials Research Conference European Materials Research Conference, France.

Sharman, Karl J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2000) Non-Invasive 3D Dynamic Object Analysis. At Proc 4th IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation Proc 4th IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. pp. 214-218.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2000) A NEW FORCE FIELD TRANSFORM FOR EAR AND FACE RECOGNITION. At Proceedings of the IEEE 2000 International Conference on Image Processing ICIP2000 Proceedings of the IEEE 2000 International Conference on Image Processing ICIP2000. pp. 25-28.

Sharman, Karl J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2000) Towards a Markerless Human Gait Analysis System. At Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photgrammetry and Remote Sensing Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photgrammetry and Remote Sensing. pp. 713-719.

Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2000) On Measuring Trajectory-Invariant Gait Signatures. At Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. pp. 114-121.

Hayfron-Acquah, James B., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2001) Automatic Gait Recognition via the Generalised Symmetry Operator. At BMVA Workshop Understanding Visual Behaviour BMVA Workshop Understanding Visual Behaviour.

Lappas, P., Carter, J. N. and Damper, R. I. (2002) Robust evidence-based object tracking. Pattern Recognition Letters, 23 (1-3), 253-260.

Hayfron-Acquah, James B., Nixon, Mark. S. and Carter, John N. (2001) Automatic Gait Recognition by Symmetry Analysis. Bigun, Josef and Smeraldi, Fabrizio (eds.) At Audio-and-Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication Audio-and-Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication. pp. 272-277.

Lappas, P., Carter, J. N. and Damper, R. I. (2001) Object tracking via the dynamic velocity Hough transform. At IEEE International Conference on Image Processing IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Greece. pp. 371-374.

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2001) Extended Model-Based Automatic Gait Recognition of Walking and Running. At Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, AVBPA 2001 Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, AVBPA 2001. pp. 278-283.

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Gait Recognition By Walking and Running: A Model-Based Approach. At Proceedings Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV 2002 Proceedings Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV 2002. pp. 1-6.

Hayfron-Acquah, James B., Nixon, Mark. S. and carter, John N. (2001) Recognising Human and Animal Movement by Symmetry. At Int. Conf. on Image Processing, ICIP 2001 Int. Conf. on Image Processing, ICIP 2001. pp. 290-293.

Laxmi, V., Carter, J. N. and Damper, R. I. (2002) Biologically-motivated human gait classifiers. At Third IEEE Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies, AutoID'02 Third IEEE Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies, AutoID'02. pp. 17-22.

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Performance Analysis on New Biometric Gait Motion Model. At Proceedings of Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation Proceedings of Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation.

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) On the Relationship of Human Walking and Running: Automatic Person Identification by Gait. At International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2002) International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2002). pp. 287-290.

Spencer, Nicholas M. and Carter, John N. (2002) Viewpoint Invarience in Automatic Gait Recognition. At Proceedings of Third IEEE Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies, AutoID'02 Proceedings of Third IEEE Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies, AutoID'02. pp. 1-6.

Laxmi, V., Carter, J. N. and Damper, R. I. (2002) Biologically-inspired human motion detection. At 10th European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks 10th European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Belgium. pp. 95-100.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Force Field Energy Functionals for Image Feature Extraction. Image and Vision Computing, 20, 311-317.

Hayfron-Acquah, James, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Human Identification by Spatio-Temporal Symmetry. At International Conference on Pattern Recognition International Conference on Pattern Recognition. pp. 632-635.

Sharman, Karl, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Extraction and description of 3D (articulated) moving objects. At First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission, Italy. 19 - 21 Jun 2002. pp. 664-667.

Yam, Chew Y, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2002) Automated Markerless Analysis of Human Walking and Running by Computer Vision. At IV World Congress on Biomechanics IV World Congress on Biomechanics, Canada. no pages-(CD.

Shutler, Jamie, Grant, Mike, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2002) On a Large Sequence-Based Human Gait Database. At Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Soft Computing Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Soft Computing, United Kingdom. pp. 66-72.

Yam, Chew Y, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2002) Automated Non-Invasive Human Locomotion Extraction Invariant to Camera Sagittal View. At International Congress on Biomedical and Medical Engineering International Congress on Biomedical and Medical Engineering, Singapore. no pages-(CD).

Hayfron-Acquah, James, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Automatic gait recognition by symmetry analysis. Pattern Recognition Letters, 24, 2175-2183.

Carter, J. N., Lappas, P. and Damper, R. I. (2003) Evidence-based object tracking via global energy maximization. At IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2003) IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2003). pp. 185-188.

Lappas, P., Damper, R. I. and Carter, J. N. (2003) Feature tracking in an energy maximization framework. At IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, China. pp. 3109-3114.

Nixon, Mark S., Carter, John N., Grant, Michael G., Gordon, Layla G. and Hayfron-Acquah, James B. (2003) Automatic recognition by gait: progress and prospects. Sensor Review, 23 (4), 323-331.

Myerscough, Peter J, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Guiding Optical Flow Estimation. Harvey, Richard and Bagham, J. Andrew (eds.) At British Machine Vision Conference British Machine Vision Conference. pp. 681-690.

Prismall, Stuart P., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) ACCURATE OBJECT RECONSTRUCTION BY STATISTICAL MOMENTS. At VIE 2003 VIE 2003, United Kingdom. pp. 1-5.

Prismall, Stuart P., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Novel Temporal Views of Moving Objects for Gait Biometrics. Kittler, Josef and Nixon, Mark S. (eds.) At Audio Visual Biometric Person Authentication Audio Visual Biometric Person Authentication. pp. 725-733.

Prismall, Stuart P., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) On Moving Object Reconstruction By Moments. Marshall, Dave and Rosin, Paul (eds.) At British Machine Vision Conference British Machine Vision Conference. pp. 1-10.

Yam, Chew Yean, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2004) Automated person recognition by walking and running via model-based approaches. Pattern Recognition, 37 (5).

Veres, Galina, Gordon, Layla, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2004) What image information is important in silhouette-based gait recognition. At IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition conference IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition conference.

Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (2004) Advances in Automatic Gait Recognition. At IEEE Face and Gesture Analysis 2004, FG04 IEEE Face and Gesture Analysis 2004, FG04. pp. 11-16.

Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2004) On gait as a biometric: progress and prospects. At Proc. EUSIPCO 2004 Proc. EUSIPCO 2004.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2005) Force field feature extraction for ear biometrics. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 98, 491-512.

Avila-Garcia, M. S., Carter, J. N. and Damper, R. I. (2004) Extracting tongue shape dynamics from magnetic resonance image sequences. At International Conference on Signal Processing (ICSP 2004) International Conference on Signal Processing (ICSP 2004), Turkey. pp. 288-291.

Lappas, P., Damper, R. I. and Carter, J. N. (2006) Object tracking by energy maximization. Soft Computing, 10 (1), 20-26.

Middleton, Lee, Wong, Sylvia C, Jewell, Michael O, Carter, John N and Nixon, Mark S (2005) Lightweight Agent Framework for Camera Array Applications. Khosla, Rajiv, Howlett, Robert J. and Jain, Lakhmi C. (eds.) At 9th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (KES) 9th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (KES), Australia. 14 - 16 Sep 2005. pp. 150-156.

Middleton, Lee, Wong, Sylvia C., Jewell, Michael O., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2005) A middleware for a large array of cameras. At IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Canada. 02 - 06 Aug 2005. pp. 3682-3687.

Veres, Galina V, Nixon, Mark S, Middleton, Lee and Carter, John N. (2005) Fusion of dynamic and static features for gait recognition over time. At Eighth International Conference of Information Fusion Eighth International Conference of Information Fusion, United States. 25 - 29 Jul 2005.

Spencer, Nicholas and Carter, John (2005) Towards pose invariant gait reconstruction. IEEE International Conference On Image Processing, 3, 261-264.

Avila-Garcia, M. S., Carter, J. N. and Damper, R. I. (2005) Automatic extraction of tongue shape dynamics from magnetic resonance image sequences. At 10th International Conference on Speech and Computer (SPECOM2005) 10th International Conference on Speech and Computer (SPECOM2005), Greece. pp. 119-122.

Veres, Galina, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2005) Modelling the time-variant covariates for gait recognition. Kanade, T, Jain, A.K. and Ratha, N.K. (eds.) At AVBPA2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, AVBPA2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,, United States. 20 - 22 Jul 2005. pp. 597-606.

Veres, Galina, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2005) Model-based approaches for predicting gait changes over time. At International Workshop on Pattern Recognition International Workshop on Pattern Recognition.

Laxmi, V., Damper, R. I. and Carter, J. N. (2006) Human and machine perception of biological motion. Cognitive Systems Research, 7 (4), 339-356.

Middleton, Lee, Wagg, David K., Bazin, Alex I., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) Developing a non-intrusive biometric environment. At IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), China. 11 - 13 Oct 2006.

Rahmalan, Hidayah, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2006) On Crowd Density Estimation for Surveillance. At International Conference on Crime Detection and Prevention International Conference on Crime Detection and Prevention, United Kingdom.

Middleton, Lee, Wagg, David K., Bazin, Alex I., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) A smart environment for biometric capture. At IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, China.

Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2006) Automatic Recognition by Gait. Proceedings of the IEEE, 94 (11), 2013-2024.

Goffredo, Michela, Spencer, Nicholas, Pearce, Daniel, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2007) Human Perambulation as a Self Calibrating Biometric. In, Lecture Notes in Computer Science - Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 139-153. ,

Goffredo, Michela, Seely, Richard D., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2008) Markerless View Independent Gait Analysis with Self-camera Calibration. At IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition 2008 IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition 2008, Netherlands. 17 - 19 Sep 2008.

Goffredo, Michela, Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2008) Front-view Gait Recognition. At IEEE Second International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 08) IEEE Second International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 08), United States. 29 Sep - 01 Oct 2008.

Seely, Richard David, Samangooei, Sina, Middleton, Lee, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2008) The University of Southampton Multi-Biometric Tunnel and introducing a novel 3D gait dataset. At Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, United States.

Goffredo, Michela, Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2008) Performance Analysis for Gait in Camera Networks. At ACM Workshop on Analysis and Retrieval of Events, Actions, and Workflows in Video Streams ACM Workshop on Analysis and Retrieval of Events, Actions, and Workflows in Video Streams, Canada.

Bouchrika, Imed, Goffredo, Michela, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2009) Covariate Analysis for View-point Independent Gait Recognition. At The 3rd IAPR/IEEE International Conference on Biometrics The 3rd IAPR/IEEE International Conference on Biometrics, Italy.

Seely, Richard, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2008) Spatio-temporal 3D Gait Recognition. At 3D Video – Analysis, Display and Applications 3D Video – Analysis, Display and Applications, United Kingdom.

Seely, Richard, Goffredo, Michela, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2009) View Invariant Gait Recognition. In, Handbook of Remote Biometrics: for Surveillance and Security. Springer, pp. 61-82. ,

Goffredo, Michela, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2008) 2D Markerless Gait Analysis. 4th European Congress for Medical and Biomedical Engineering 2008. 23 - 27 Nov 2008.

Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2009) Recognizing People in Non-Intersecting Camera Views. International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention.

Goffredo, Michela, Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2009) Performance Analysis for Automated Gait Extraction and Recognition in Multi-Camera Surveillance. Journal of Multimedia Tools and Application.

Goffredo, Michela, Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2010) Self-calibrating view-invariant gait biometrics. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B (Cybernetics), 40 (4), 997 -1008. (doi:10.1109/TSMCB.2009.2031091). (PMID:19884085)

Cummings, Alastair, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2010) Circle Detection Using the Image Ray Transform. At VISAPP VISAPP, France. 17 - 21 May 2010.

Matovski, Darko, Nixon, Mark, Mahmoodi, Sasan and Carter, John (2010) The Effect of Time on the Performance of Gait Biometrics. At IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, United States.

Cummings, Alastair, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2010) A Novel Ray Analogy for Enrolment of Ear Biometrics. At IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, United States.

Nixon, Mark S., Bouchrika, Imed, Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe and Carter, John N. (2010) On use of biometrics in forensics: gait and ear. At European Signal Processing Conference European Signal Processing Conference, Denmark. 23 - 27 Aug 2010.

Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe, Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2010) On Supervised Human Activity Analysis for Structured Environments. At 6th International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC10) 6th International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC10), United States. 01 Nov - 01 Dec 2010.

Matovski, Darko, Nixon, Mark, Mahmoodi, Sasan and Carter, John (2012) The effect of time on gait recognition performance. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 7 (2), 543-552. (doi:10.1109/TIFS.2011.2176118).

Bouchrika, Imed, Goffredo, Michaela, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2011) On Using Gait in Forensic Biometrics. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56 (4), 882-889. (doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01793.x).

Veres, Galina, Middleton, Lee, Sabeur, Zoheir, Bouchrika, Imed, Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe, Carter, John, Nixon, Mark, Grabner, Helmut, Stalder, Severin, Van Gool, Luc, Morzinger, Roland, Thaler, Marcus, Rene, Schuster, Albert, Hofman and Thallinger, Georg (2010) Tools for semi-automatic monitoring of industrial workflows. At ACM Multimedia 2010 ACM Multimedia 2010, Italy. 25 - 29 Oct 2010.

Waller, Ben, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2011) Texture Segmentation by Evidence Gathering. At 3rd BMVC Workshop 3rd BMVC Workshop, United Kingdom.

Cummings, Alastair H., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2011) The image ray transform for structural feature detection. Pattern Recognition Letters, 32 (15), 2053-2060.

Samangooei, Sina, Bustard, John, Seely, Richard, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2011) On Acquisition and Analysis of a Dataset Comprising of Gait, Ear and Semantic data. In, Multibiometrics for Human Identification. CUP, pp. 277-301. ,

Waller, Ben M, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2012) Colour texture segmentation using evidence gathering. At 1st IET Image Processing Conference 1st IET Image Processing Conference, United Kingdom. 03 - 04 Jul 2012. 6 pp.

Waller, Ben M., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2012) Analysing Micro- and Macro-Structures in Textures. At 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems, Italy. 25 - 29 Nov 2012. 8 pp.

Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) The way we walk. [in special issue: Expert Witness Supplement] Solicitors Journal, Spring Issue, 15-16.

Matovski, Darko, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Gait recognition. In, Ikeuchi, Katsushi (ed.) Encyclopedia of Computer Vision. Springer Science+Business Media. ,

Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe, Carter, John N. and Nixon, M.S. (2013) On hierarchical modelling of motion for workflow analysis from overhead view. Machine Vision and Applications.

Abuzaina, Anas, Alathari, Thamer, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Sphere detection in Kinect point clouds via the 3D Hough transform. At 15th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns 15th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, United Kingdom. 27 - 29 Aug 2013.

Abuzaina, Anas, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Detecting moving spheres in 3D point clouds via the 3D velocity Hough transform. At 11th IEEE Image, Video and Multidimensional Signal Processing Workshop 11th IEEE Image, Video and Multidimensional Signal Processing Workshop, Korea, Republic of. 10 - 12 Jun 2013.

Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John N., Nixon, Mark S., Mörzinger, Rudolf and Thallinger, George (2010) International Conference on Pattern Recognition. At International Conference on Pattern Recognition International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Turkey. pp. 3097-3100.

Bustard, John, Carter, John N., Nixon, Mark S. and Hadid, Abdenour (2014) Measuring and mitigating targeted biometric impersonation. IET Biometrics, 1-7. (doi:10.1049/iet-bmt.2013.0054).

Bustard, John, Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) Targeted impersonation as a tool for the detection of biometric system vulnerabilities. At 2013 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS) 2013 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), United States. 29 Sep - 02 Oct 2013. pp. 1-6. (doi:10.1109/BTAS.2013.6712744).

Bustard, John, Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) Targeted biometric impersonation. At 2013 International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF) 2013 International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF), Portugal. 04 - 05 Apr 2013. 4 pp.

Waller, Ben, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Image reconstruction from local binary patterns. At IEEE International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS) IEEE International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS), Japan. 02 - 05 Dec 2013. pp. 118-123. (doi:10.1109/SITIS.2013.30).

Bustard, John, Ghahramani,, Mohammad, Carter, John N., Zhao, Guoying, Hadid, Abdenour and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) Gait anti-spoofing. In, Sébastien, Marcel, Nixon, Mark and Li, Stan Z. (eds.) Handbook of Biometric Antispoofing: Trusted Biometrics under Spoofing Attacks. London, GB. Springer, pp. 147-163. (Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, , (doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-6524-8)) , (doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-6524-8).

Abuzaina, Anas, Alathari, Thamer, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Detecting moving spheres in 3D point clouds via the 3D velocity Hough Transform. At IEEE 11th Image, Video and Multidimensional Signal Processing (IVMSP) Workshop IEEE 11th Image, Video and Multidimensional Signal Processing (IVMSP) Workshop, Korea, Republic of. 10 - 12 Jun 2013. 4 pp. (doi:10.1109/IVMSPW.2013.6611895).

Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2016) Towards automated visual surveillance using gait for identity recognition and tracking across multiple non-intersecting cameras. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 75 (2), 1201-1221.

Abuzaina, Anas, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2014) 3D moving object reconstruction by temporal accumulation. At 2014 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 2014 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), Sweden. pp. 2125-2130. (doi:10.1109/ICPR.2014.370).

Makihara, Yasushi, Matovski, Darko, Nixon, M.S., Carter, John N. and Yagi, Yasushi (2015) Gait Recognition: Databases, Representations, and Applications. In, Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Wiley. ,

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2015) Soft Biometric Recognition from Comparative Crowdsourced Annotations. At 6th International Conference on Imaging for Crime Prevention and Detection 6th International Conference on Imaging for Crime Prevention and Detection.

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2016) Soft Biometric Retrieval to Describe and Identify Surveillance Images. IEEE International Conference on Identity, Security and Behavior Analysis (ISBA 2016), Japan. 29 Feb - 02 Mar 2016. 6 pp. (doi:10.1109/ISBA.2016.7477240).

Abdulsattar, Fatimah Shamsulddin and Carter, John (2016) Performance analysis of gait recognition with large perspective distortion. At International Conference on Security and Behaviour Analysis (ISBA 2016) International Conference on Security and Behaviour Analysis (ISBA 2016), Japan. 6 pp.

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2016) Analysing comparative soft biometrics from crowdsourced annotations. IET Biometrics, 5 (4), 276-283. (doi:10.1049/iet-bmt.2015.0118).

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2016) On categorising gender in surveillance imagery. IEEE 8th International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 2016), United States. 06 - 09 Sep 2016.

Abdulsattar, Fatimah and Carter, John (2016) A practical technique for gait recognition on curved and straight trajectories. ICB-2016 The 9th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics, Sweden. 13 - 16 Jun 2016. 6 pp.

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2016) Retrieving relative soft biometrics for semantic identification. In, 2016 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR). IEEE. , (doi:10.1109/ICPR.2016.7900105).

Abuzaina, Anas, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2017) 3D Motion Estimation By Evidence Gathering. In 2016 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2016). IEEE.. (doi:10.1109/ICPR.2016.7899890).

Guo, Bingchen, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2018) Fusion analysis of soft biometrics for recognition at a distance. IEEE International Conference on Identity, Security and Behavior Analysis 2018. 11 - 12 Jan 2018. 8 pp.

Guo, Bingchen, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2017) Supervised generalized canonical correlation analysis of soft biometric fusion for recognition at a distance. 8th International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention 2017 (ICDP-2017). 13 - 15 Dec 2017. 6 pp.

Guo, Bingchen, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2018) A joint density based rank-score fusion for soft biometric recognition at a distance. International Conference on Pattern Recognition 2018 (ICPR 2018). 20 - 24 Aug 2018.

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