The University of Southampton

Dr Markus Brede 

Personal homepage

I am an Associate Professor in Computer Science at the University of Southampton. Prior to that I graduated with a Diploma and later a PhD in Physics from the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Leipzig and then worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher and later Research Scientist at CSIRO's division of atmospheric research.


Research interests

My main research interest is in interdisciplinary applications of non-linear dynamics and network science to complex systems. Some recent examples include work on

  • influence maximization for social systems,
  • understanding the stability and regulation of banking systems,
  • climate economics,
  • language learning and linguistic networks,
  • dynamics in ecosystems,
  • modeling ancient societies and more.

Most of my research is related to the structure of and dynamics on complex networks with particular interests in the dynamics of synchronization, evolutionary games on networks, models of consensus formation and opinion control, and optimal network designs.  See my list of publications for recent work and my personal home page (see link above)  for more detail on possible research topics/projects under my supervision.

If you are interested in studying for a PhD in any of these areas, feel free to contact me to discuss in person.


Brede, Markus (2010) Coordinated and uncoordinated optimization of networks. Physical Review E, 81 (6), 066104-[10]. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.81.066104).

Brede, Markus, Boschetti, Fabio and McDonald, David (2008) Strategies for resource exploitation. Ecological Complexity, 5 (1), 22-29. (doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2007.07.002).

Brede, Markus (2008) Synchrony-optimized networks of non-identical Kuramoto oscillators. Physics Letters A, 372 (15), 2618-2622. (doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2007.11.069).

Brede, M. (2008) Locals vs. global synchronization in networks of non-identical Kuramoto oscillators. The European Physical Journal B, 62 (1), 87-94. (doi:10.1140/epjb/e2008-00126-9).

Brede, Markus (2008) Construction principles for highly synchronizable sparse directed networks. Physics Letters A, 372 (32), 5305-5308. (doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2008.06.017).

Brede, M. (2008) Synchronization on directed small worlds: Feed forward loops and cycles. Europhysics Letters, 84 (4), 40004-[6pp]. (doi:10.1209/0295-5075/84/40004).

Boschetti, Fabio and Brede, Markus (2009) An information-based adaptive strategy for resource exploitation in competitive scenarios. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 76 (4), 525-532. (doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2008.05.005).

Brede, Markus and de Vries, Bert J.M. (2009) Networks that optimize a trade-off between efficiency and dynamical resilience. Physics Letters A, 373 (43), 3910-3914. (doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2009.08.049).

Brede, M. and De Vries, H.J.M. (2010) Harvesting heterogeneous renewable resources: Uncoordinated, selfish, team-, and community-oriented strategies. Environmental Modelling & Software, 25 (1), 117-128. (doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2009.07.007).

Brede, M. (2010) Optimal synchronization on strongly connected directed networks. The European Physical Journal B, 74 (2), 217-225. (doi:10.1140/epjb/e2010-00016-7).

Brede, Markus (2010) Optimal synchronization in space. Physical Review E, 81 (2), 025202-[4pp]. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.81.025202).

Brede, Markus (2010) The synchronization transition in correlated oscillator populations. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 239 (18), 1759-1765. (doi:10.1016/j.physd.2010.05.010).

Brede, M. (2010) Small worlds in space: synchronization, spatial and relational modularity. Europhysics Letters, 90 (6), 60005-[6pp]. (doi:10.1209/0295-5075/90/60005).

Brede, M. (2011) Playing against the fittest: a simple strategy that promotes the emergence of cooperation. Europhysics Letters, 94 (3), 30003-[7pp]. (doi:10.1209/0295-5075/94/30003).

Brede, Markus (2011) Growth and optimality in network evolution. Artificial Life, 17 (4), 281-291. (doi:10.1162/artl_a_00039).

Brede, Markus (2011) The evolution of cooperation on correlated payoff landscapes. Artificial Life, 17 (4), Autumn Issue, 365-373. (doi:10.1162/artl_a_00044).

Brede, Markus and Boschetti, Fabio (2009) Commons and anticommons in a simple renewable resource harvest model. Ecological Complexity, 6 (1), 56-63. (doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2008.10.009).

Brede, Markus (2007) Network characteristics that facilitate the stable evolution of cooperation. Complex Systems II, Australia. 68020R-68020R . (doi:10.1117/12.769308).

Brede, Markus (2007) The prisoner's dilemma with image scoring on networks: How does a player's strategy depend on its place in the social network? 3rd Australian Conference on Artificial Life, Australia. 04 - 06 Dec 2007. pp. 222-231 .

Newth, David and Brede, Markus (2006) Fitness landscape analysis and optimization of coupled oscillators. Complex Systems, 16 (4), 317-331.

Newth, David and Brede, Markus (2005) Optimizing coupled oscillators for stability. 18th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Australia. 05 - 09 Dec 2005. pp. 1327-1330 .

Behn, U., Brede, Markus and Richter, Joachim (2004) Nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics of models for the immune system. In, Deutch, A., Howard, J., Falcke, M. and Zimmermann, W. (eds.) Function and Regulation of Cellular Systems. Basel, CH. Birkhäuser, pp. 399-410.

Brede, Markus and Behn, Ulrich (2003) Patterns in randomly evolving networks: Idiotypic networks. Physical Review E, 67 (3). (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.67.031920).

Wilmers, Christopher C., Sinha, Sitabhra and Brede, Markus (2002) Examining the effects of species richness on community stability: an assembly model approach. Oikos, 99 (2), 363-367. (doi:10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.990218.x).

Brede, Markus and Behn, Ulrich (2001) Architecture of idiotypic networks: Percolation and scaling Behavior. Physical Review E, 64 (1). (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.64.011908).

Grigg, N.J., Boschetti, F., Brede, M. and Finnigan, J.J. (2011) A probabilistic approach to exploring low-dimensional global dynamics. [in special issue: Earth System Science 2010: Global Change, Climate and People] Procedia Environmental Sciences, 6, 122-135. (doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2011.05.013).

Gunasekara, D, Ford, M, Heyhoe, E, Ahammad, H, Phipps, S, Harman, I, Finnigan, J and Brede, Markus (2008) Global Integrated Assessment Model: A New Analytical Tool for Assessing Climate Change Risks and Policies. Australian Commodities, 15 (1), 195-216.

Boschetti, Fabio and Brede, Markus (2009) Competitive scenarios, community responses and organisational implications. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 11 (4), 39-47.

Brede, Markus and Newth, David (2008) Patterns in syntactic dependency networks from authored and randomised texts. Complexity International, 12 (msid23).

Brede, Markus (2010) Optimizing spatially embedded networks for synchronization. Artificial Life XII: Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Denmark. 19 - 23 Aug 2010. pp. 295-302 .

Tanimoto, J., Yamauchi, A. and Brede, M. (2012) Network reciprocity by coexisting learning and teaching strategies. Physical Review E, 85 (3), 032101-[4 pages]. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.85.032101).

Brede, Markus (2012) Book review: Networks-An Introduction by Mark E. J. Newman. Artificial Life, 18 (2), 241-242.

Brede, Markus (2012) Preferential opponent selection in public goods games. Advances in Complex Systems, 15 (7).

Brede, Markus and de Vries, B.J.M. (2013) The energy transition in a climate constrained world: regional vs. global optimization. [in special issue: Thematic Issue on Innovative Approaches to Global Change Modelling] Environmental Modelling & Software, 44, 44-61. (doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.07.011).

Brede, Markus (2013) Short versus long term benefits and the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. PLoS ONE, 8 (2).

Brede, Markus (2013) Costly advertising and the evolution of cooperation. PLoS ONE.

Finnigan, John, Brede, Markus and Grigg, Nicola (2013) Quantitative modelling of the human–Earth System a new kind of science? In, Negotiating our future: Living scenarios for Australia to 2050 Vol II. Australian Academy of Science, pp. 119-146.

Moran, Timothy, Brede, Markus, Ianni, Antonella and Noble, J. (2013) The origin of money: an agent-based model. ECAL 2013, Italy. 8 pp .

Brede, M. and Tudge, Simon (2013) Replication strategies and the evolution of cooperation by exploitation. ECAL 2013, Italy. pp. 300-307 .

Brede, M. and Noble, J. (2013) The coevolution of costly heterogeneities and cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. ECAL 2013, Italy. pp. 159-166 .

Stella, Massimo and Brede, Markus (2014) A k-deformed model of growing complex networks with fitness. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 407, 360-368. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2014.04.009).

Falahat, Darius P., Gerding, Enrico H. and Brede, Markus (2013) Evolving Behaviour-Dependent Strategies in Agent Negotiations. 12th European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2013), Italy. 02 - 06 Sep 2013. pp. 593-600 . (doi:10.7551/978-0-262-31709-2-ch085).

Stella, Massimo and Brede, Markus (2015) Patterns in the English language: phonological networks, percolation and assembly models. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 2015 (5), [P05006]. (doi:10.1088/1742-5468/2015/05/P05006).

Haslett, Garvin and Brede, Markus (2015) Planarity as a driver of Spatial Network structure. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Artificial Life 2015: ECAL 2015: The Thirteenth European Conference on Artificial Life. The MIT Press. pp. 431-437 . (doi:10.7551/978-0-262-33027-5-ch075).

Tudge, Simon J. and Brede, Markus (2015) A tale of two theorems: Comment on “Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games” by Z. Wang et al. Physics of Life Reviews, 14, 49-51. (doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2015.07.003).

De Caux, Bob, Brede, Markus and McGroarty, Frank (2016) Payment prioritisation and liquidity risk in collateralised interbank payment systems. Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 41, 139-150. (doi:10.1016/j.intfin.2015.12.009).

Tudge, Simon, Brede, Markus and Watson, Richard (2013) Cooperation and the division of labour. Proceedings of the twelfth European Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Italy. 02 - 06 Sep 2013. 8 pp .

Tudge, Simon, Brede, Markus and Watson, Richard (2015) The evolution of assortment with multiple simultaneous games. The European Conference on Artificial Life 2015, United Kingdom. 20 - 24 Jul 2015. 7 pp .

Tudge, Simon, Brede, Markus, Watson, Richard and Gonzalez, Miguel (2014) Hamilton’s rule in non-additive games. Author's Original, 1-11. (Submitted)

Haslett, Garvin, Alistair, Bullock, Seth and Brede, Markus (2016) Data used to create plots in "Planar growth generates scale-free networks". University of Southampton doi:10.5258/SOTON/387243 [Dataset]

Haslett, Garvin, Bullock, Seth and Brede, Markus (2016) Planar growth generates scale-free networks. Journal of Complex Networks, 1-26. (doi:10.1093/comnet/cnw005). (In Press)

Tudge, Simon J., Watson, Richard A. and Brede, Markus (2016) Game theoretic treatments for the differentiation of functional roles in the transition to multicellularity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 395, 161-173. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2016.01.041).

Brede, Markus and Alexander, Kalloniatis (2016) Frustration tuning and perfect phase synchronization in the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi model. Physical Review E, 93 (6), 1-13. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062315).

Roman, Sabin, Bullock, Seth and Brede, Markus (2017) Coupled societies are more robust against collapse: a hypothetical look at Easter Island. Ecological Economics, 132, 264-278. (doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.11.003).

De Caux, Robert, Mcgroarty, Frank and Brede, Markus (2017) The evolution of risk and bailout strategy in banking systems. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 468, 109-118. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2016.10.005).

Wang, Tao, Brede, Markus, Ianni, Antonella and Mentzakis, Emmanouil (2017) Detecting and characterizing eating-disorder communities on social media. Tenth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 06 Feb 2016 - 10 Feb 2017 . pp. 91-100 . (doi:10.1145/3018661.3018706).

Kouvaris, Kostas, Clune, Jeff, Kounios, Loizos, Brede, Markus and Watson, Richard (2017) How evolution learns to generalise: using the principles of learning theory to understand the evolution of developmental organisation. PLoS computational biology, 13 (4), 1-20, [e1005358]. (doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005358).

Stella, Massimo, Beckage, Nicole and Brede, Markus (2017) Multiplex lexical networks reveal patterns in early word acquisition in children. Scientific Reports, 7, [46730]. (doi:10.1038/srep46730).

Roman, Sabin and Brede, Markus (2017) Topology-dependent rationality and quantal response equilibria in structured populations. Physical Review E, 95, [052310]. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.95.052310).

Brede, Markus and Kalloniatis, Alexander (2017) Controlling synchronisation through adaptive phase lags. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Physics and Control (PhysCon 2017). IPME RAS. 8 pp .

Roman, Sabin, Palmer, Erica and Brede, Markus (2017) The dynamics of human-environment interactions in the collapse of the Classic Maya. Ecological Economics, 146, 312-324. (doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.11.007).

De Caux, Robert, McGroarty, Frank and Brede, Markus (2018) Growth and collapse: An agent-based banking model of endogenous leverage cycles and financial contagion. International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics, 8 (3/4), 370-387. (doi:10.1504/IJCEE.2018.096376).

Brede, Markus, Stella, Massimo and Kalloniatis, Alexander C. (2018) Competitive influence maximization and enhancement of synchronization in populations of non-identical Kuramoto oscillators. Scientific Reports, 8, [702]. (doi:10.1038/s41598-017-18961-z).

Stella, Massimo, Beckage, Nicole, Brede, Markus and De Domenico, Manlio (2018) Multiplex model of mental lexicon reveals explosive learning in humans. Scientific Reports, 8, 1-11, [2259]. (doi:10.1038/s41598-018-20730-5).

Brede, Markus, Restocchi, Valerio and Stein, Sebastian (2018) Resisting influence: How the strength of predispositions to resist control can change strategies for optimal opinion control in the voter model. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 5 (34). (doi:10.3389/frobt.2018.00034).

Wang, Tao, Mentzakis, Emmanouil, Brede, Markus and Ianni, Antonella (2019) Estimating determinants of attrition in eating disorder communities on Twitter: an Instrumental variables approach. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 21 (5). (doi:10.2196/preprints.10942).

Wang, Tao (2018) Data: Social Interactions in Online Eating Disorder Communities: A Network Perspective. University of Southampton doi:10.5258/SOTON/D0551 [Dataset]

Wang, Tao, Brede, Markus, Ianni, Antonella and Mentzakis, Emmanouil (2018) Social interactions in online eating disorder communities: a network perspective. PLoS ONE, 1-17, [e0200800]. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0200800).

Brede, Markus, Restocchi, Valerio and Stein, Sebastian (2018) Effects of time horizons on Influence maximization in the voter dynamics. Journal of Complex Networks. (In Press)

Cobain, Matthew, Robert David, Brede, Markus and Trueman, Clive (2018) Taylor’s power law captures the effects of environmental variability on community structure: an example from fishes in the North Sea. Journal of Animal Ecology. (doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12923).

Brede, Markus, Restocchi, Valerio and Stein, Sebastian (2019) Transmission errors and influence maximization in the voter model. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 1-15. (doi:10.1088/1742-5468/ab054b).

Kalloniatis, Alexander and Brede, Markus (2019) Controlling and enhancing synchronisation through adaptive phase lags. Physical Review E, 99, [032303]. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.99.032303).

Wang, Tao, Brede, Markus, Ianni, Antonella and Mentzakis, Emmanouil (2019) Characterizing dynamic communication in online eating disorder communities: A multiplex network approach. Applied Network Science.

Brede, Markus (2019) How does active participation effect consensus: adaptive network model of opinion dynamics and influence maximizing rewiring. Complexity, 2019, [1486909]. (doi:10.1155/2019/1486909).

Chakraborty, Sukankana, Stein, Sebastian, Brede, Markus, Restocchi, Valerio, Swami, Ananthram and de Mel, Geeth (2019) Competitive influence maximisation using voting dynamics. Workshop on Social Influence held in conjunction with the 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, Canada. 27 - 30 Aug 2019. p. 978 . (doi:10.1145/3341161.3345025).

Romero Moreno, Guillermo, Tran-Thanh, Long and Brede, Markus (2019) Shielding and shadowing: a tale of two strategies for opinion control in the voting dynamics. In Complex Networks and Their Applications VIII: Volume 1: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Complex Networks and Their Applications COMPLEX NETWORKS 2019. vol. 881, Springer. pp. 682-693 . (doi:10.1007/978-3-030-36687-2_57).

Romero Moreno, Guillermo, Manino, Edoardo, Tran-Thanh, Long and Brede, Markus (2019) Zealotry and influence maximization in the voter model: when to target zealots? Barbosa, Hugo, Gomez-Gardenes, Jesus, Gonçalves, Bruno, Mangioni, Giuseppe, Menezes, Ronaldo and Oliveira, Marcos (eds.) In Complex Networks XI: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Complex Networks CompleNet 2020. Springer International Publishing.. (In Press)


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