The University of Southampton

Publications

Watson, Richard A. and Pollack, Jordan B. (2002) A Computational Model of Symbiotic Composition in Evolutionary Transitions. BioSystems, 69 (2-3), 187-209.

Watson, Richard A. (2006) Compositional Evolution: The impact of Sex, Symbiosis and Modularity on the Gradualist Framework of Evolution, vol. NA, MIT Press (Vienna series in theoretical biology, NA) ,

Pollack, Jordan B., Bedau, Mark, Husbands, Phil, Ikegami, Takashi and Watson, Richard A. , Pollack, Jordan B., Bedau, Mark, Husbands, Phil, Ikegami, Takashi and Watson, Richard A. (eds.) (2004) Artificial Life IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, MIT Press ,

Watson, Richard A., Ficici, Sevan G. and Pollack, Jordan B. (2002) Embodied Evolution: Distributing an evolutionary algorithm in a population of robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 39 (1), 1-18.

Watson, Richard A. and Pollack, Jordan B. (2005) Modular Interdependency in Complex Dynamical Systems. Artificial Life, 11 (4), 445-457.

Silverman, Eric and Bullock, Seth (2004) Empiricism in artificial life. Pollack, Jordan, Bedau, Mark, Takashi Ikegami, Phil Husbands and Watson, Richard A. (eds.) At the Ninth International Conference on Artificial Life the Ninth International Conference on Artificial Life. pp. 534-539.

Mills, Rob and Watson, Richard A. , Capcarrere, Mathieu S., Freitas, Alex A., Bentley, Peter J., Johnson, Colin G. and Timmis, Jon (eds.) (2005) Genetic Assimilation and Canalisation in the Baldwin Effect. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 3, 353-362.

Lenaerts, Tom, Chu, Dominique and Watson, Richard A. (2005) Dynamical Hierarchies. Artificial Life, 11 (4), 403-405.

Watson, Richard A. and Wakeley, John (2005) Multidimensional Epistasis and the Advantage of Sex. In 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation. vol. 3, IEEE. pp. 2792-2799.

Weinreich, Daniel M., Watson, Richard A. and Chao, Lin (2005) Perspective:Sign Epistasis and Genetic Constraint on Evolutionary Trajectories. Evolution, 59 (6), 1165-1174.

Watson, Richard A. (2005) On the Unit of Selection in Sexual Populations. In Advances in Artificial Life, Eighth European Conference (ECAL 2005).

Mills, Rob and Watson, R. A. (2006) On crossing fitness valleys with the Baldwin Effect. Rocha, Luis M., Bedau, Mark, Floreano, Dario, Goldstone, Robert, Vespignani, Alessandro, Yaeger, Larry and Rocha, Luis M. (eds.) In Artificial Life X: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems. Bradford Books/MIT Press. pp. 493-499.

Watson, Richard A. (2004) A simple two-module problem to exemplify building-block assembly under crossover. Yao, X. and , et al. (eds.) In Parallel Problem Solving from Nature - PPSN VIII. PPSN 2004. vol. 3242, Springer. pp. 161-171. (doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30217-9_17).

Watson, Richard A., Yao, Xin and al, et (2002) Compositional Evolution: Interdisciplinary Investigations in Evolvability, Modularity, and Symbiosis. Brandeis University, MA. USA, Computer Science, Doctoral Thesis.

Watson, Richard A. (2001) Analysis of Recombinative Algorithms on a Non-Separable Building-Block Problem. In, Martin, Worthy N. and Spears, William M. (eds.) Foundations of Genetic Algorithms, Volume 6. Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 69-90. ,

Watson, Richard A. and Pollack, Jordan B. , Kelemen, Jozef and Sos, Petr (eds.) (2001) Symbiotic Composition and Evolvability. Proceedings of European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2001), 480-490.

Watson, Richard A. and Pollack, Jordan B. (1999) How Symbiosis Can Guide Evolution. Floreano, Dario, Nicoud, Jean-Daniel and Mondada, Francesco (eds.) In Advances in Artificial Life: 5th European Conference, ECAL'99, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 13-17, 1999 Proceedings. vol. 1674, Springer-Verlag. pp. 29-38.

Watson, Richard A. and Pollack, Jordan B. , Spector, Lee (ed.) (2001) Coevolutionary Dynamics in a Minimal Substrate. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO 2001), 702-709.

Watson, Richard A., Reil, Torsten and Pollack, Jordan B. , Bedau, M., McCaskill, J., Packard, N. and Rasmussen, S. (eds.) (2000) Mutualism, Parasitism, and Evolutionary Adaptation. Proceedings of Artificial Life VII (ALife VII), 170-178.

Watson, Richard A., Hornby, Gregory S. and Pollack, Jordan B. , Eiben, A. E., Back, T., Schoenauer, M. and Schweffel, H.-B. (eds.) (1998) Modeling Building Block Interdependency. Proceedings of Parallel Problem Solving from Nature V (PPSN V), 97-106.

Dauscher, Peter, Polani, Daniel and Watson, Richard A. , Rocha, M., Bedau, M., Floreano, D., Goldstone, R., Vespignani, A. and Yaeger, L. (eds.) (2006) A Simple Modularity Measure for Search Spaces based on Information Theory. Proceedings of Artificial Life X (ALife X).

De Jong, Edwin, Watson, Richard A. and Thierens, Dirk (2005) On the complexity of hierarchical problem solving. In GECCO '05 Proceedings of the 7th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation. ACM. pp. 1201-1208. (doi:10.1145/1068009.1068207).

Watson, Richard A., Weinreich, Daniel and Wakeley, John (2006) Effects of intra-gene fitness interactions on the benefit of sexual recombination. Biochemical Society Transactions, 34 (4), 560-561.

Mills, Rob and Watson, Richard A. (2007) Variable discrimination of crossover versus mutation using parameterized modular structure. Thierens, Dirk and Lipson, Hod (eds.) In GECCO '07 Proceedings of the 9th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation. ACM. pp. 1312-1319.

Mills, Rob and Watson, Richard A. , Almeida e Costa, Fernando, Rocha, Luis M., Costa, Ernesto, Harvey, Inman and Coutinho, Antonio (eds.) (2007) Symbiosis, Synergy and Modularity: Introducing the Reciprocal Synergy Symbiosis Algorithm. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1192-1201.

Powers, Simon T. and Watson, Richard A. (2007) Preliminary Investigations into the Evolution of Cooperative Strategies in a Minimally Spatial Model. At Proceedings of the 9th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation (GECCO 2007) Proceedings of the 9th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation (GECCO 2007). 07 - 11 Jul 2007. p. 343.

Powers, Simon T. and Watson, Richard A. (2007) Investigating the Evolution of Cooperative Behaviour in a Minimally Spatial Model. e Costa, Fernando A., Rocha, Luis M., Costa, Ernesto, Harvey, Inman and Coutinho, António (eds.) In Advances in Artificial Life : Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2007). Springer. pp. 605-614.

Powers, Simon T., Penn, Alexandra S. and Watson, Richard A. (2007) Individual Selection for Cooperative Group Formation. e Costa, Fernando A., Rocha, Luis M., Costa, Ernesto, Harvey, Inman and Coutinho, António (eds.) In Advances in Artificial Life: Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2007). Springer. pp. 585-594.

Watson, Richard A. and Jansen, Thomas (2007) A building-block Royal Road where crossover is provably essential. Thierens, Dirk and Lipson, Hod (eds.) In GECCO '07 Proceedings of the 9th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation. ACM. pp. 1452-1459.

Noble, J. and Watson, R. A. (2001) Pareto coevolution: Using performance against coevolved opponents in a game as dimensions for Pareto selection. Spector, L., Goodman, E., Wu, A., Langdon, W. B., Voigt, H.-M., Gen, M., Sen, S., Dorigo, M., Pezeshk, S., Garzon, M. and Burke, E. (eds.) In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2001. Morgan Kauffman. pp. 493-500.

Powers, Simon T. and Watson, Richard A. (2008) The Group Selection Debate and ALife: Weak Altruism, Strong Altruism, and Inclusive Fitness (abstract). In Artificial Life XI: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. p. 796.

Mills, Rob and Watson, Richard A. (2008) Adaptive units of selection can evolve complexes that are provably unevolvable under fixed units of selection (abstract). Bullock, S., Noble, J., Watson, R. A. and Bedau, M. A. (eds.) In Artificial Life XI: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems. MIT Press. p. 785.

Powers, Simon T, Penn, Alexandra S and Watson, Richard A (2008) The Efficacy of Group Selection is Increased by Coexistence Dynamics within Groups. Bullock, Seth, Noble, Jason and Watson, Richard (eds.) In Artificial Life XI: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. pp. 498-505.

Groom, Graeme, Mills, Rob and Watson, Richard A. (2008) How epigenetic evolution can guide genetic evolution (abstract). Bullock, Seth, Noble, Jason, Watson, Richard A. and Bedau, M. A. (eds.) In Artificial Life XI: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. p. 772.

Watson, Richard A., Mills, Robert, Penn, Alexandra and Powers, Simon T (2008) Can individual selection favour significant higher-level selection? (abstract). Bullock, Seth, Noble, Jason, Watson, Richard and Bedau, Mark (eds.) At The Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems (Alife XI) The Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems (Alife XI), United Kingdom. 05 - 08 Aug 2008. p. 818.

James, E., Noble, J. and Watson, R. (2008) Solving the division of labour problem using stigmergy and evolved heterogeneity (abstract). Bullock, S., Noble, J., Watson, R. and Bedau, M. A. (eds.) In Artificial Life XI: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. p. 778.

Bullock, S., Noble, J., Watson, R. and Bedau, M. (2008) Artificial Life XI: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, MIT Press ,

Penn, Alexandra S, Powers, Simon T, Conibear, Tim, Kraaijeveld, Alex, Watson, Richard, Bigg, Zoe and Webb, Jeremy (2008) Co-operation and Group structure in Bacterial Biofilms. At Society for General Microbiology, Autumn meeting. Society for General Microbiology, Autumn meeting..

Watson, Richard A., Buckley, C. L. and Mills, Rob (2009) The Effect of Hebbian Learning on Optimisation in Hopfield Networks s.n. ,

Mills, Rob and Watson, Richard A. , Kampis, George and Szathmáry, Erös (eds.) (2009) Symbiosis Enables the Evolution of Rare Complexes in Structured Environments. Proceedings of 10th European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2009), 110-117. (doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21314-4_14).

Powers, Simon T and Watson, Richard A (2009) Evolution of Individual Group Size Preference can Increase Group-level Selection and Cooperation. In Advances in Artificial Life: Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2009). Springer..

Watson, Richard A., Buckley, C. L. and Mills, Rob (2009) Global Adaptation in Networks of Selfish Components: Emergent Associative Memory at the System Scale s.n. ,

Watson, Richard, Palmius, Niclas, Mills, Robert, Powers, Simon T and Penn, Alexandra , Kampis, George and Szathmáry, Erös (eds.) (2009) Can Selfish Symbioses Effect Higher-level Selection? Proceedings of 10th European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2009).

Snowdon, James, Powers, Simon T and Watson, Richard (2009) Moderate contact between sub-populations promotes evolved assortativity enabling group selection. At Proceedings of 10th European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2009) Proceedings of 10th European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2009).

Powers, Simon T, Mills, Rob, Penn, Alexandra S and Watson, Richard A (2009) Social Environment Construction Provides an Adaptive Explanation for New Levels of Individuality. At Levels of Selection and Individuality in Evolution: Conceptual Issues and the Role of Artificial Life Models Levels of Selection and Individuality in Evolution: Conceptual Issues and the Role of Artificial Life Models, Hungary. pp. 18-21.

Watson, Richard A., Buckley, C. L. and Mills, Rob (2011) Optimisation in ‘Self-modelling’ Complex Adaptive Systems. Complexity, 16 (5), 17-26.

Watson, Richard, Weinreich, Daniel M. and Wakeley, John (2011) Genome structure and the benefit of sex. Evolution, 65 (2), 523-536. (doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01144.x). (PMID:21029076)

Watson, Richard A., Mills, Rob and Buckley, C.L. (2011) Global adaptation in networks of selfish components: emergent associative memory at the system scale. Artificial Life, 17 (3), Summer Issue, 147-166.

Powers, Simon T., Penn, Alexandra S. and Watson, Richard A. (2011) The Concurrent Evolution of Cooperation and the Population Structures that Support it. Evolution, 65 (6), 1527-1543.

Watson, Richard, Mills, Rob, Buckley, C. L., Penn, Alexandra, Davies, Adam, Noble, Jason and Bullock, Seth (2010) Adaptation without natural selection. Fellerman, Harold, Dörr, Mark, Hanczyc, Martin M., Ladegaard Laursen, Lone, Maurer, Sarah, Merkle, Daniel, Monnard, Pierre-Alain, Stoy, Kasper and Rasmussen, Steen (eds.) In Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems. MIT Press. pp. 80-81.

Noble, Jason, Hebbron, Tom, Van Der Horst, Johannes, Mills, Rob, Powers, Simon T. and Watson, Richard (2010) Selection pressures for a theory-of-mind faculty in artificial agents. Fellerman, Harold, Dörr, Mark, Hanczyc, Martin M., Ladegaard Laursen, Lone, Maurer, Sarah, Merkle, Daniel, Monnard, Pierre-Alain, Stoy, Kasper and Rasmussen, Steen (eds.) In Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems. MIT Press. p. 615.

Davies, Adam, Watson, Richard, Mills, Rob, Buckley, C. L. and Noble, Jason (2010) If you can't be with the one you love, love the one you're with: How individual habituation of agent interactions improves global utility. Fellerman, Harold, Dörr, Mark, Hanczyc, Martin M., Ladegaard Laursen, Lone, Maurer, Sarah, Merkle, Daniel, Monnard, Pierre-Alain, Stoy, Kasper and Rasmussen, Steen (eds.) In Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems. MIT Press. pp. 659-666.

Watson, Richard A., Mills, Rob and Buckley, C. L. (2011) Transformations in the Scale of Behaviour and the Global Optimisation of Constraints in Adaptive Networks. Adaptive Behavior, 19 (4), 227-249.

Mills, Rob, Watson, Richard A. and Buckley, Christopher L. (2011) Emergent associative memory as a local organising principle for global adaptation in adaptive networks. At Eighth International Conference on Complex Systems Eighth International Conference on Complex Systems. pp. 417-430.

Mills, Rob and Watson, Richard A. (2011) Multi-scale search, modular variation, and adaptive neighbourhoods. Author's Original. (Submitted)

McCabe, Connor, Watson, Richard, Prichard, Jane S. and Hall, Wendy (2011) The Web as an Adaptive Network: Coevolution of Web Behavior and Web Structure. ACM Web Science Conference 2011, Germany. 14 - 17 Jun 2011.

Davies, Adam, Watson, Richard, Mills, Rob, Buckley, C.L. and Noble, Jason (2011) "If you can't be with the one you love, love the one you're with": How individual habituation of agent interactions improves global utility. Artificial Life, 17 (3), Summer Issue, 167-181. (doi:10.1162/artl_a_00030).

Powers, Simon T, Heys, Christopher and Watson, Richard A (2011) How to Measure Group Selection in Real-world Populations. In, Advances in Artificial Life, ECAL 2011. MIT Press, pp. 672-679. ,

Penn, Alexandra S., Conibear, Tim C.R., Watson, Richard A., Kraaijeveld, Alex R. and Webb, Jeremy S. (2012) Can Simpson's paradox explain co-operation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms? [in special issue: Biofilms II] FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 65 (2), 226-235. (doi:10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00970.x).

Weinreich, Daniel M., Sindi, Suzanne and Watson, Richard A. (2012) Finding the boundary between evolutionary basins of attraction, and implications for Wright’s fitness landscape analogy. [in special issue: Statistical Mechanics and the Dynamics of Evolution] Journal of Statistical Mechanics Theory and Experiment, 523-536.

Watson, Richard, Buckley, C. L., Mills, Rob and Davies, Adam (2010) Associative memory in gene regulation networks. Fellerman, Harold, Dörr, Mark, Hanczyc, Martin M., Ladegaard Laursen, Lone, Maurer, Sarah, Merkle, Daniel, Monnard, Pierre-Alain, Stoy, Kasper and Rasmussen, Steen (eds.) In Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems. MIT Press. pp. 659-666.

Watson, Richard (2012) Is evolution by natural selection the algorithm of biological evolution? Adami, Christoph, Bryson, David M., Ofria, Charles and Pennock, Robert T. (eds.) In Artificial Life XIII: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems. MIT Press. pp. 121-128.

Watson, Richard (2012) Individual and global adaptation in networks. Wróbel, Borys (ed.) In Artificial Life XIII: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems. MIT Press. 4 pp.

Doncaster, C. Patrick, Jackson, Adam and Watson, Richard A. (2013) Manipulated into giving: when parasitism drives apparent or incidental altruism. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280 (1758), 20130108-[10pp]. (PMID:23486440)

Doncaster, C. Patrick, Jackson, Adam and Watson, Richard A. (2013) Competitive environments sustain costly altruism with negligible assortment of interactions. Scientific Reports, 3 (2836), 1-6.

Gonzalez, Miguel, Watson, Richard A., Noble, Jason and Bullock, Seth (2014) The origin of culture: Selective conditions for horizontal information transfer. Lipson, Hod, Sayama, Hiroki, Rieffel, John, Risi, Sebastian and Doursat, Rene (eds.) In ALIFE 14: The Fourteenth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems. MIT Press. 8 pp.

Calman, L., Redfern, SJ and Watson, Richard A. (2000) Competence to practice of student nurses: theoretical frameworks, instruments and concerns. At The Royal College of Nursing Research Society Annual Nursing Research Conference The Royal College of Nursing Research Society Annual Nursing Research Conference, United Kingdom.

Watson, Richard, Mills, Rob, Buckley, C.L., Kouvaris, Konstantinos, Jackson, Adam, Powers, Simon T., Cox, Chris, Tudge, Simon, Davies, Adam, Kounios, Loizos and Power, Daniel (2015) Evolutionary connectionism: algorithmic principles underlying the evolution of biological organisation in dvo-devo, evo-eco and evolutionary transitions. Evolutionary Biology, 1-31. (doi:10.1007/s11692-015-9358-z).

Tudge, Simon, Brede, Markus and Watson, Richard (2013) Cooperation and the division of labour. At Proceedings of the twelfth European Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems Proceedings of the twelfth European Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Italy. 02 - 06 Sep 2013. 8 pp.

Tudge, Simon, Brede, Markus and Watson, Richard (2015) The evolution of assortment with multiple simultaneous games. At The European Conference on Artificial Life 2015 The European Conference on Artificial Life 2015, United Kingdom. 20 - 24 Jul 2015. 7 pp.

Tudge, Simon, Brede, Markus, Watson, Richard and Gonzalez, Miguel (2014) Hamilton’s rule in non-additive games. Author's Original, 1-11. (Submitted)

Power, Daniel A., Watson, Richard A., Szathmáry, Eörs, Mills, Rob, Powers, Simon T., Doncaster, C. Patrick and Czapp, Blazej (2015) What can ecosystems learn? Expanding evolutionary ecology with learning theory. Biology Direct, 10 (69), 1-24. (doi:10.1186/s13062-015-0094-1).

Watson, Richard and Ebner, Marc (2013) Eco-evolutionary dynamics on deformable fitness landscapes. In, Richter, Hendrik and Engelbrecht, Andries (eds.) Recent Advances in the Theory and Application of Fitness Landscapes. Berlin, DE. Springer, pp. 339-368. (Emergence, Complexity and Computation, , (doi:10.1007/978-3-642-41888-4), 6) , (doi:10.1007/978-3-642-41888-4).

Watson, Richard and Szathmary, Eors (2016) How can evolution learn? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 31 (2), 147-157. (doi:10.1016/j.tree.2015.11.009).

Watson, Richard A., Wagner, Gunter, Pavlicev, Mihaela, Weinreich, Daniel M. and Mills, Rob (2014) The evolution of phenotypic correlations and “developmental memory”. Evolution, 68 (4), 1124-1138. (doi:10.1111/evo.12337).

Tudge, Simon J., Watson, Richard A. and Brede, Markus (2016) Game theoretic treatments for the differentiation of functional roles in the transition to multicellularity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 395, 161-173. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2016.01.041).

Kouvaris, Kostas, Clune, Jeff, Kounios, Loizos, Brede, Markus and Watson, Richard (2017) How evolution learns to generalise: using the principles of learning theory to understand the evolution of developmental organisation. PLoS Computational Biology, 13 (4), 1-20. (doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005358).

Mills, Robert, Jansen, Thomas and Watson, Richard (2014) Transforming evolutionary search into higher-level evolutionary search by capturing problem structure. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 18 (5), 628 - 642. (doi:10.1109/TEVC.2014.2347702).

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