The University of Southampton
Telephone:
+442380593542
Email:
msn@ecs.soton.ac.uk

Mark S. Nixon

Academic Staff

Personal homepage

I'm the Professor in Computer Vision at the School of Electronics and Computer Science. My research interests are in image processing and computer vision. I have helped to develop new techniques for static and moving shape extraction (both parametric and non-parametric) which have found application in automatic face and automatic gait recognition and in medical image analysis. We were early workers in face recognition, later came to pioneergait recognition and later joined the pioneers of ear biometrics, and currently we're working on soft biometrics where we recognise people by human attributes. Amongst previous research contracts, I was Principal Investigator with John Carter on the DARPA supported project Automatic Gait Recognition for Human ID at a Distance , on the General Dynamics Defence Technology Centre's program on data fusion (biometrics, naturally), on the MoD/ARL (US) IBM-led Information Technology Alliance and we're currently working on the EU funded Tabula Rasa programme which is the first co-ordinated study of spoofing biometrics.

I chaired the 9th British Machine Vision Conference BMVC'98 held at Southampton in September '98 (an issue of Image and Vision Computing containing some of the most highly rated conference papers was published as Volume 18 Number 9). The BMVC'98 Electronic Conference Proceedings remain online via the British Machine Vision Association . Apart from being a programme member/ reviewer for other conferences, Josef Kittler and I chaired IAPR International Conference Audio Visual Biometric Person Authentication (AVBPA 2003) and was Publications Chair for the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2004) at Cambridge UK with Josef Kittler, I co-chaired the IEEE 7th International Conference on Face and Gesture Recognition FG2006 held at Southampton, UK in 2006. More recently I have been program cochair at many of the top biometrics conferences (IEEE BTAS, IEEE/IAPR IJCB, IAPR ICB) and general chair BTAS 2010 and ISBA 2016, and track chair ICPR 2016.

I am a Fellow of the IET, Fellow of the IAPR (for services to biometrics and computer vision) and am the Distinuished Fellow of the BMVA 2015.

If you'd like to hear about our research in automatic gait recognition, I gave plenaries/ keynotes on gait biometrics at at IEEE Face and Gesture 2004, EUSIPCO 2004, IEEE ISBAST 2008, the International Conference on Information Security and Digital Forensics, on Biometrics and Forensics, at IEEE BTAS 2009 and on Semantic Biometrics at IEEE BiDS 2009. Most recently I spoke (and you can see the talk - it's on a History of Biometrics) at IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics (USA, 2011) and at the 15th Sanken International Symposium (Japan, 2012) and on gait and soft at IEEE AVSS 2013.

My first book, Introductory Digital Design - a programmable approach , was published by MacMillan, UK, July 1995. Our vision book, co-written with Dr. Alberto Aguado from the University of Surrey, entitled Feature Extraction and Image Processing is currently in its Second Edition, published by Academic Press/ Elsevier in 2007. With Tieniu Tan and Rama Chellappa, we wrote Human ID based on Gait which is part of the Springer Series on Biometrics, and was published late 2005. We wrote the survey on Gait Biometrics in the first text on Biometrics: Personal ID in Networked Society, and the Ear Biometrics Chapter in The Handbook of Biometrics. Excellent books indeed.





Gait book picture

Our work on biometrics has attracted quite a lot of press interest. Most recently (2011), we have shown the first try at gait spoofing on Discovery's Planet Earth (about time 6:20). Here we are on BBC1, Aug 2005 (ears), on ABC (Good Morning America) News (gait, also on YouTube ), on BBC (40 Years of Surveillance, 2008) now on YouTube, and more recently we were on a new BBC1 Program Bang Goes the Theory. Even better, there's an article in the Times and even a leading article. There's been more coverage on ear biometrics recently: here we are on ITV Meridian, 2010, (gait) and on BBC1 in 2010 (more for juniors this) Newsround (ear - use VLC to open this one). If you have codec problems, try VLC or GOM as one or other usually works.

Mark Nixon's publications .

For a bit of R&R, I play in a folk band, Forest Folk

Research

Projects

Grants

We have been funded by EPSRC (UK), EU Framework 6 and 7, DARPA (US), MoD/ General Dynamics DTC Phase 1 and 2, and IBM MoD/ ARL (US) ITA.

Professional

Qualifications

BSc PhD FIET FIAPR Distinguished Fellow BMVA 2015

Publications

Allen, R., Zheng, Y. and Nixon, M.S. (2001) Measurement of the kinematics of the lumbar spine in vivo. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomechanics & Annual Scientific Meeting of the Taiwanese Society of Biomechanics, Taipei, Taiwan, 9-11 November 2001. Taiwanese Society of Biomechanics..

Gething, P.W., Noor, A.M., Zurovac, D., Atkinson, P.M., Hay, S.I., Nixon, M.S. and Snow, R.W. (2004) Empirical modelling of government health service use by children with fevers in Kenya. Acta Tropica, 91 (3), 227-237. (doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2004.05.002).

Tatem, A.J., Lewis, H.G., Atkinson, P.M. and Nixon, M.S. (2001) Dealing with uncertainty in super-resolution land cover mapping. In Proceedings of the RSPSoc 2001 Conference on Geomatics, Earth Observation and the Information Society. RSPSoc..

Tatem, A.J., Lewis, H.G., Atkinson, P.M. and Nixon, M.S. (2001) Super-resolution mapping of urban scenes from IKONOS imagery using a Hopfield neural network. In IGARSS 2001 Scanning the Present and Resolving the Future. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. pp. 3203-3205.

Tatem, A.J., Lewis, H.G., Atkinson, P.M. and Nixon, M.S. (2001) Super-resolution mapping of multiple-scale land cover features using a Hopfield neural network. In, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2001. IGARSS '01. IEEE 2001 International. Sydney, Australia. IEEE, pp. 3200-3202. , (doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2001.978302).

Tatem, A.J., Lewis, H.G., Atkinson, P.M. and Nixon, M.S. (2000) Land cover mapping at the sub-pixel scale using a Hopfield neural network. In Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment. pp. 47-50.

Tatem, Andrew J., Lewis, Hugh G., Atkinson, Peter M. and Nixon, Mark S. (2001) Multiple-class land-cover mapping at the sub-pixel scale using a Hopfield neural network. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 3 (2), 184-190.

Tatem, A.J., Lewis, H.G., Atkinson, P.M. and Nixon, M.S. (2001) Super-resolution target identification from remotely sensed images using a Hopfield neural network. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39 (4), 781-96. (doi:10.1109/36.917895).

Tatem, A.J., Lewis, H.G., Atkinson, P.M. and Nixon, M.S. (2002) Super-resolution land cover pattern prediction using a Hopfield neural network. Remote Sensing of Environment, 79 (1), 1-14. (doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(01)00229-2).

Tatem, A.J., Lewis, H.G., Atkinson, P.M. and Nixon, M.S. (2003) Increasing the spatial resolution of agricultural land cover maps using a Hopfield neural network. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17 (7), 647-672. (doi:10.1080/1365881031000135519).

Tatem, A.J., Lewis, H.G., Atkinson, P.M. and Nixon, M.S. (2002) Super-resolution land cover mapping from remotely-sensed imagery using a Hopfield neural network. In, Foody, Giles M. and Atkinson, Peter M. (eds.) Uncertainty in Remote Sensing and GIS. Chichester, UK. John Wiley & Sons, pp. 77-98. ,

Lewis, H.G., Nixon, M.S. and Brown, M. (1999) On appropriate modelling strategies for estimating land cover areas from satellite imagery. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN '99). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. pp. 443-448. (doi:10.1049/cp:19991149).

Lewis, H.G., Brown, M., Tatnall, A.R.L., Nixon, M.S. and Manslow, J.F. (1998) Data analysis and empirical classification in FLIERS Southampton, UK. Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton (ISIS Technical Report) ,

Lewis, H.G. and Nixon, M.S. (1999) Empirical models for estimating land cover areas from remotely sensed imagery. In Proceedings of the Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1999 (IGARSS '99). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers..

Lewis, H.G., Nixon, M.S., Tatnall, A.R.L. and Brown, M. (1999) Appropriate strategies for mapping land cover from satellite imagery. Proceedings of The 25th Conference of the Remote Sensing Society. 08 - 10 Sep 1999. pp. 717-724.

Lewis, H.G., Nixon, M.S., Tatnall, A.R.L., Edwards, M. and Hughes, M. (1999) On the role of uncertainty in empirical mixture modelling. At Proceedings of The 25th Conference of the Remote Sensing Society Proceedings of The 25th Conference of the Remote Sensing Society. 08 - 10 Sep 1999.

Zheng, Yalin, Nixon, M.S. and Allen, R. (2004) Automatic segmentation of lumbar vertebrae in digital videofluoroscopic images. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 23 (1), 45-52. (doi:10.1109/TMI.2003.819927).

Gething, Peter W., Noor, Abdisalan M., Gikandi, Priscilla W., Ogara, Esther A. A., Hay, Simon I., Nixon, Mark S., Snow, Robert S. and Atkinson, Peter M. (2006) Improving imperfect Health Management Information System data in Africa using space-time geostatistics. PLoS Medicine, 3 (6), 271-[pp 7]. (doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030271).

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2004) Automated person recognition by walking and running via model-based approaches. Pattern Recognition, 37 (5), 1057-1072.

Cunado, David, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Automatic extraction and description of human gait models for recognition purposes. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 90 (1), 1-41. (doi:10.1016/S1077-3142(03)00008-0).

Grant, Michael G., Nixon, Mark S. and Lewis, Paul H. (2002) Extracting moving shapes by evidence gathering. [in special issue: Handwriting processing and applications] Pattern Recognition, 35 (5), 1099-1114.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2005) Force field feature extraction for ear biometrics. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 98 (3), 491-512.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Force field energy functionals for image feature extraction. Image and Vision Computing, 20 (5-6), 311-317. (doi:10.1016/S0262-8856(02)00003-3).

Hayfron-Acquah, James, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Automatic gait recognition by symmetry analysis. [in special issue: Audio- and Video-based Biometric Person Authentication (AVBPA 2001)] Pattern Recognition Letters, 24 (13), 2175-2183. (doi:10.1016/S0167-8655(03)00086-2).

Stevenage, Sarah, Nixon, Mark S. and Vince, Kate (1970) Visual analysis of gait as a cue to identity. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13 (6), 513-526. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(199912)13:6<513::AID-ACP616>3.0.CO;2-8).

Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (2006) Automatic recognition by gait. Proceedings of the IEEE, 94 (11), 2013-2024. (doi:10.1109/JPROC.2006.886018).

Gething, Peter W., Noor, Abdisalan M., Gikandi, Priscilla W., Hay, Simon I., Nixon, Mark S., Snow, Robert W. and Atkinson, Peter M. (2008) Developing geostatistical space–time models to predict outpatient treatment burdens from incomplete national data. Geographical Analysis, 40 (2), 167-188.

Huang, P.S., Harris, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1998) Recognising Humans by Gait via Parametric Canonical Space. At Proc. of International Symposium on Engineering of Intelligence Systems Proc. of International Symposium on Engineering of Intelligence Systems. pp. 384-389.

Huang, P.S., Harris, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1998) Canonical Space Representation for Recognizing Humans by Gait and Face. At Proc. of IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation Proc. of IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. pp. 180-185.

Chen, Y.Q., Nixon, M.S. and Thomas, D.W. (1997) On Texture Classification. International Journal of Intelligent Systems, 28 (7), 669--682.

Nixon, M.S. (1997) On a Programmable Approach to Introducing Digital Electronics. IEEE Transactions on Education, 40 (3), 195--206.

Chen, Y.Q., Damper, R.I. and Nixon, M.S. (1997) On neural network implementations of k-nearest neighbour pattern classifiers. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 44 (7), 622--629.

Aguado, A.S. and Nixon, M.S. (1996) Primitive Extraction via Gathering Evidence of Global Parameterised Models. University of Southampton, : University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Aguado, A.S., Nixon, M.S. and Montiel, M.E. (1998) Parameterising Arbitrary Shapes via Fourier Descriptors for Evidence-Gathering Extraction. CVGIP: Image Understanding, 69 (2), 202-221.

Aguado, A.S., Montiel, M.E. and Nixon, M.S. (1997) Arbitrary shape Hough transform by invariant geometric features. At International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. pp. 2661-2664.

Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1997) A Robust Snake Implementation: A Dual Active Contour. IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 19 (1), 63--68.

Benn, D.E., Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (1997) Robust Eye Centre Extraction using the Hough Transform. Bigun, J., Chollet, G. and Borgefors, G. (eds.) At Proceedings of 1st Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication Proceedings of 1st Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication. 3--9.

Cunado, D., Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (1997) Using gait as a biometric, via phase-weighted magnitude spectra. Bigun, J., Chollet, G. and Borgefors, G. (eds.) At Proceedings of 1st Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication Proceedings of 1st Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication. 95--102.

Davies, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1996) Sensing Surface Discontinuities via Coloured Spots. At Proc. International Workshop on Image and Signal Processing Proc. International Workshop on Image and Signal Processing. 573--576.

Aguado, A.S., Montiel, M.E. and Nixon, M.S. (1996) Improving Parameter Space Decomposition for the Generalised Hough Transform. At Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP '96 Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP '96. 627--630.

Runnacles, B.S. and Nixon, M.S. (1996) Texture extraction, Classification and Segmentation using Statistical Geometric Features. At Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP '96 Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP '96. 129--132.

Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1996) Snake Head Boundary Extraction using Local and Global Energy Minimisation. At IEEE Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition IEEE Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition, Austria. pp. 581-585.

Aguado, A.S., Montiel, M.E. and Nixon, M.S. (1996) On using Directional Information for Parameter Space Decomposition in Ellipse Detection. Pattern Recognition, 29 (3), 369--381.

Aguado, A.S., Montiel, M.E. and Nixon, M.S. (1996) Extracting Arbitrary Geometric Primitives Represented by Fourier Descriptors. At Proc. International Conference on Pattern Recognition ICPR '96 Proc. International Conference on Pattern Recognition ICPR '96. 547--551.

Evans, A.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1996) Biased Motion-Adaptive Temporal Filtering for Speckle Reduction in Echocardiography. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 15 (1), 39--50.

Davies, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) Video-Rate 3-D Imaging. At Current Topics in Industrial Vision Current Topics in Industrial Vision.

Davies, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) Feature Extraction in Three Dimensional Imaging via Colour Encoded Spots. At Proc. IEEE Canadian International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering Proc. IEEE Canadian International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering. p. 916.

Jia, X. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) Face Feature Extraction for Recognition: A Comparison. Current Progress in Pattern Recognition, 1 (2), 217--235.

Nixon, M.S. (1994) Face Feature Extraction. At Face, Iris and Testing Forum Face, Iris and Testing Forum.

Chen, Y. Q., Nixon, M. S. and Damper, R. I. (1995) Implementing the k-nearest neighbour rule via a neural network. At International Conference on Neural Networks (ICNN'95) International Conference on Neural Networks (ICNN'95). 136--140.

Evans, A.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) Spatial and temporal speckle filtering for feature extraction in ultrasound images. University of Southampton, Electronics and Computer Science, Doctoral Thesis.

Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1996) Dual Active Contour Models for Image Feature Extraction. University of Southampton, Electronics and Computer Science : University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Chen, Y.Q., Nixon, M.S. and Thomas, D.W. (1994) Statistical Geometrical Texture Description s.n. ,

Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) A Dual Active Contour Including Parameteric Shape s.n. ,

Evans, A.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) Biased Temporal Filtering in Ultrasound Imaging s.n. ,

Davies, C.J., Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (1994) Acquisition of Surface Normal Vectors via Coloured Spot Projection s.n. ,

Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) A Dual Active Contour for Improved Snake Performance s.n. ,

Davies, C.J., Nixon, M.S. and Carter, J.N. (1995) A New Hough Transform Mapping for 3D Imaging via Coloured Spots s.n. ,

Aguado, A.S. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) A New Hough Transform Mapping for Ellipse Detection s.n. ,

Jia, X. and Nixon, M. (1993) Extending the Feature set for Automatic Face Recognition. University of Southampton, : University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Chen, Y.Q. and Nixon, M. (1995) Novel Techniques for Image Texture Classification. University of Southampton, : University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Chen, Y.Q., Thomas, D.W. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) Generating Shrinking Algorithm for Learning Arbitrary Classifications. Neural Networks, 7 (9), 1477-1489.

Chen, Y.Q., Thomas, D.W. and Nixon, M.S. (1993) Arbitrary Classification by a Generating Shrinking Algorithm. At Int. Conf. on Substance Identification Technologies, (EUROPTO '93) Int. Conf. on Substance Identification Technologies, (EUROPTO '93). 90--99.

Chen, Y.Q., Nixon, M.S. and Thomas, D.W. (1994) Neural Networks and Texture Classification. At Colloq. on Application of Neural Networks in Signal Processing Colloq. on Application of Neural Networks in Signal Processing. 6/1--6/4.

Nixon, M.S. (1990) Improving an Extended Hough Transform. Signal Processing, 19, 321--335.

Muammar, H. and Nixon, M.S. (1991) Tristage Hough Transform for Multiple Ellipse Extraction. IEE Proceedings, Part E, 138 (1), 27--35.

Nixon, M.S. and Hames, T.K. (1993) A New Technique for 3D Arterial Modelling by Non-Invasive Ultrasound. IEE Proceedings I, 140 (1), 86--94.

Jia, X. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) Analysing Front View Face Profiles via the Walsh Transform. Pattern Recognition Letters, 15, 551--558.

Chen, Y.Q., Nixon, M.S. and Thomas, D.W. (1995) Statistical Geometric Features for Texture Classification. Pattern Recognition, 28 (4), 537--552.

Evans, A.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1993) Temporal Speckle Reduction for Feature Extraction in Ultrasound Images. Chetverikov, D. and Kropatsch, W. (eds.) At Lecture Notes in Computer Science Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 65--73.

Nixon, M.S. (1993) Circle Extraction via Least Squares and the Kalman Filter. Chetverikov, D. and Kropatsch, W. (eds.) At Lecture Notes in Computer Science Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 199--207.

Davies, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) Range Imaging via Spatially Encoded Coloured Spots. Holt, M., Cowan, C., Grant, P. and Sandham, W. (eds.) At Signal Processing VII Signal Processing VII. 1401--1404.

Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) Improving Snake Performance via a Dual Active Contour. Hlavac, V. and Sara, R. (eds.) At Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, Czech Republic. pp. 600-605.

Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) A Model Based Dual Active Contour. Hancock, E. (ed.) At Proc. British Machine Vision Conference Proc. British Machine Vision Conference. pp. 305-314.

Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) A Dual Active Contour for Head Boundary Extraction. At Colloq. on Image Processing for Biometric Measurement Colloq. on Image Processing for Biometric Measurement. 6/1--6/4.

Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) A Dual Active Contour Incorporating Parametric Shape Description. Holt, M., Cowan, C., Grant, P. and Sandham, W. (eds.) At European Signal Processing European Signal Processing. pp. 435-438.

Carter, J.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1990) An Integrated Biometric Database. At Colloq. on Electronic Images and Image Processing in Security and Forensic Science Colloq. on Electronic Images and Image Processing in Security and Forensic Science. 4/1--4/5.

Nixon, M.S., Carter, J.N. and Jia, X.. (1992) On Biometric Systems. At Colloq. on Systems Aspects of Machine Vision Systems Colloq. on Systems Aspects of Machine Vision Systems. 4/1-4/4.

Jia, X. and Nixon, M.S. (1992) Developing an Extended Feature Set for Automatic Face Recognition. At Colloq. on Machine Storage and Processing of Face Images Colloq. on Machine Storage and Processing of Face Images. 8/1--8/4.

Jia, X. and Nixon, M.S. (1992) Extending the Feature Set for Automatic Face Recognition. At Int. Conf. on Image Processing and its Applications Int. Conf. on Image Processing and its Applications. 155--158.

Jia, X. and Nixon, M.S. (1992) Profile Feature Extraction via the Walsh Transform for Face Recognition. At Proc. Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Visual Communications Proc. Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Visual Communications. 46--52.

Nixon, M.S. (1992) Non-Invasive Ultrasound 3D Arterial Modelling. At Colloq. on Medical Imaging: Image Processing and Analysis Colloq. on Medical Imaging: Image Processing and Analysis. 3/1--3/3.

Nixon, M.S., Hames, T.K., Martin, P., Powell, S. and de Paiva, S. (1992) 3D Arterial Modelling Using Feature Extraction in Ultrasound Images. At Int. Conf. on Image Processing and its Applications Int. Conf. on Image Processing and its Applications. 373--376.

Evans, A.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1993) Speckle Filtering in Ultrasound Images for Feature Extraction. At Int. Conf. Acoustic Sensing and Imaging Int. Conf. Acoustic Sensing and Imaging. pp. 44-49.

Evans, A.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1993) Temporal Methods for Ultrasound Speckle Reduction. At Seminar on Texture Analysis in Radar and Sonar Seminar on Texture Analysis in Radar and Sonar. 1/1--1/6.

Jia, X. and Nixon, M.S. (1993) Feature Extraction for Automatic Face Recognition. At Proc. Int. Conf. on Signal Processing Proc. Int. Conf. on Signal Processing. 1034--1037.

Carter, J.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1993) On the Potential for Computer Vision in Group Project Work. At Colloq. on The Teaching of Digital Image Processing in UK Universities Colloq. on The Teaching of Digital Image Processing in UK Universities. 8/1--8/4.

de Pavia, M.S.V. and Nixon, M.S. (1993) Circular Pattern Detection by Hough Transform in a Transputer Based System for Medical Applications. Henrique, L.H. and de Miranda Gomes, J. (eds.) At SIBGRAPI '93 SIBGRAPI '93. 255--258.

Evans, A.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) Biasing Temporal Filtering Techniques using Speckle Statistics in Ultrasound Imaging. At Proc. 2nd New Zealand Int. Conf. on Image Vision and Computing Proc. 2nd New Zealand Int. Conf. on Image Vision and Computing. 2.7.1--2.7.9.

Chen, Y.Q., Nixon, M.S. and Thomas, D.W. (1994) Texture Classification using Statistical Geometrical Features. At Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Image Processing Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Image Processing. 446--450.

Lewis, P.H., Dobie, M.R. and Nixon, M.S. (1994) Curvilinear Network Extraction from Remotely Sensed Images. At Workshop on Machine Vision Applications Workshop on Machine Vision Applications. pp. 123-126.

Nixon, M.S. (1995) Introductory Digital Design - A Programmable Approach, Macmillan ,

Nixon, M.S. (1995) Introductory Digital Design, Vol. 2 - The Solutions Handbook, Macmillan ,

Nixon, M.S. and Jordan, G. (1995) Introductory Digital Design, Vol. 3 - The Demonstration Handbook, University of Southampton ,

Jia, X. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) Extending the Feature Vector for Automatic Face Recognition. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 17 (12), 1167--1176.

Evans, A.N. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) Using the Mode for Speckle Filtering in Ultrasound Images for Feature Extraction. Proc IEE Vision, Image and Signal Processing, 142 (2), 87-94.

Jia, X. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) Face Feature Extraction for Recognition: A Comparison. Menon, J. (ed.) In Current Progress in Pattern Recognition. pp. 217-235.

Aguado, A.S., Montiel, M.E. and Nixon, M.S. (1995) Ellipse Extraction via Gradient Direction in the Hough Transform. At Proc IEE 5th International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications Proc IEE 5th International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications. 375--378.

Huang, P.S., Harris, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1998) A Statistical Approach for Recognizing Humans by Gait using Spatial-Temporal Templates. At Proc. of International Conference on Image Processing Proc. of International Conference on Image Processing. pp. 178-182.

Huang, P.S., Harris, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1998) Recognizing Humans by Gait using a Statistical Approach forTemporal Templates. At Proc. of International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Proc. of International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. pp. 4556-4561.

Huang, P.S., Harris, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1998) Comparing Different Template Features for Recognizing People by Their Gait. At Proc. of Ninth British Machine Vision Conference Proc. of Ninth British Machine Vision Conference. pp. 639-648.

Huang, P.S., Harris, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1998) VisualSurveillance and Tracking of Humans by Face and Gait Recognition. At Proc. of 7th IFAC Symposium on Artificial Intelligence in Real-Time Control Proc. of 7th IFAC Symposium on Artificial Intelligence in Real-Time Control. pp. 43-44.

Huang, P.S., Harris, C.J. and Nixon, M.S. (1999) Recognising humans by gait via parametric canonical space. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, 13 (4), 359-366.

Huang, P.S., Harris, C.J. and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) Human Gait Recognition in Canonical Space Using Temporal Templates. IEE Proceedings - Vision, Image and Signal Processing, 146 (2), 93-100.

Nixon, M. S., Ng, L. S., Benn, D. E. and Gunn, S. R. (1997) Considerations on extended feature vectors in automatic face recognition. At IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC 97 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC 97. pp. 4075-4080.

Gunn, S. R. and Nixon, M. S. (1998) Global and local active contours for head boundary extraction. International Journal of Computer Vision, 30 (1), 43-54.

Nixon, M. S., Carter, J. N., Cunado, D., Huang, P. S. and Stevenage, S. V. (1999) Automatic Gait Recognition. Jain, A. K., Bolle, R. and Pankanti, S. (eds.) In Biometrics: Personal Identification in Networked Society. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 231-250.

(1998) Proceedings of the ninth British Machine Vision Conference BMVC98. Lewis, P. H. and Nixon, M. S. (eds.)

(1998) Electronic Proceedings of the ninth British Machine Vision Conference BMVC98. Carter, J. N. and Nixon, M. S. (eds.)

Ng, L. S., Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (1998) Combining Feature Sets for Texture Extraction. At Proc. IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation Proc. IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. pp. 103-108.

Toller, M. S., Lewis, P. H. and Nixon, M. S. (1998) Video Segmentation using Combined Cues. At Proc. SPIE Electronic Imaging: Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases VI Proc. SPIE Electronic Imaging: Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases VI. pp. 414-425.

Cunado, David, Nash, Jason M., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1999) Gait Extraction and Description by Evidence-Gathering. At Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication AVBPA99 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication AVBPA99. pp. 43-48.

Benn, D. E., Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (1999) Extending Concentricity Analysis by Deformable Templates for Improved Eye Extraction. At Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication AVBPA99 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication AVBPA99. pp. 1-6.

Cunado, David, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1998) Extracting a Human Gait Model for use as a Biometric. At IEE Colloquium "Computer Vision for Virtual Human Modelling" IEE Colloquium "Computer Vision for Virtual Human Modelling". 11/1-11/4.

Nixon, Mark S., Carter, John N., Nash, Jason M., Huang, Ping S., Cunado, David and Stevenage, Sarah V. (1999) Automatic Gait Recognition. At IEE Colloquium "Motion Analysis and Tracking" IEE Colloquium "Motion Analysis and Tracking". 3/1-3/6.

Grant, Michael G., Nixon, Mark S. and Lewis, Paul H. (1999) Finding Continuous-Model Moving Shapes by Evidence Gathering. At IEE Colloquium "Motion Analysis and Tracking IEE Colloquium "Motion Analysis and Tracking. 14/1-14/4.

Ng, L. S., Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (1998) Combined Feature Sets for Texture Extraction. Singh, S. (ed.) At Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Pattern Recognition ICAPR '98 Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Pattern Recognition ICAPR '98. pp. 35-44.

Aguado, Alberto S., Montiel, M. Eugenia and Nixon, Mark S. (2000) Bias Error Analysis of the Generalised Hough Transform. Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision, 12 (1), 25-42.

Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) On Measuring Gait Signatures which are Invariant to their Trajectory. Measurement and Control, 32 (9), 265-269.

Cunado, David, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1999) Automatic Gait Recognition via Model-Based Evidence Gathering. O'Gorman, Larry and Shellhammer, Steve (eds.) At Proceedings AutoID '99: IEEE Workshop on Identification Advanced Technologies Proceedings AutoID '99: IEEE Workshop on Identification Advanced Technologies. pp. 27-30.

Grant, Michael G., Nixon, Mark S. and Lewis, Paul H. (1999) Finding Moving Shapes by Continuous-Model Evidence Gathering. Pridmore, Tony and Elliman, David (eds.) At Proceedings British Machine Vision Conference 1999, BMVC99 Proceedings British Machine Vision Conference 1999, BMVC99. pp. 554-563.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1999) Force Field Energy Functionals for Image Feature Extraction. Pridmore, Tony and Elliman, David (eds.) At Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 1999, BMVC99 Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 1999, BMVC99. pp. 604-613.

Parsons, Chris J. and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) Introducing Focus in the Generalised Symmetry Operator. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 6 (3), 49-51.

Lewis, Hugh G. and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) Empirical Models for Estimating Land Cover Areas from Remotely-Sensed Imagery. At Proc. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Proc. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. 2504 - 2506.

Lewis, Hugh G., Nixon, Mark S. and Tatnall, Adrian R. L. (1999) Appropriate strategies for mapping land cover from satellite imagery. Proceedings of The 25th Conference of the Remote Sensing Society. 08 - 10 Sep 1999. pp. 717-724.

Tatem, Andrew, Akninson, Peter and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) On the use of Hopfield Neural Nets for Sub-Pixel land Cover Area Estimation. Proceedings of The 25th Conference of the Remote Sensing Society. 08 - 10 Sep 1999. pp. 873-880.

Lewis, Hugh G., Hughes, Mike, Edwards, Marianne, Tatnall, Adrian and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) On the role of uncertainty in emprical mixture modelling. Proceedings of The 25th Conference of the Remote Sensing Society. 08 - 10 Sep 1999. pp. 709-716.

Lewis, Hugh G., Nixon, Mark S. and Brown, Martin (1999) On appropriate modelling strategies for estimating land cover areas from satellite imagery. At Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks. pp. 443-448.

Nash, Jason M., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1997) Velocity Hough Transform: A new technique for dynamic feature extraction. At Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP 97 Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP 97. pp. 386-389.

Nash, Jason M., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1998) Extraction of Moving Articulated-Objects by Evidence Gathering. Lewis, Paul H. and Nixon, Mark S. (eds.) At Proceedings of the Ninth British Machine Vision Conference BMVC98 Proceedings of the Ninth British Machine Vision Conference BMVC98. pp. 609-618.

Nash, Jason M., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1997) Dynamic Feature Extraction via the Velocity Hough Transform. Pattern Recognition Letters, 18 (10), 1035-1047.

Nixon, Mark S. (1997) Vision-Based Biometrics. At Intelligent Imaging Programme General Meeting Intelligent Imaging Programme General Meeting.

Stevenage, Sarah V., Nixon, Mark S. and Vince, Kate (1999) Visual Analysis of Gait as a Cue to Identity. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13 (6), 513-526.

Aguado, Alberto S., Montiel, Eugenia and Nixon, Mark S. (2000) On the Intimate Relationship between the Principle of Duality and the Hough Transform. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 456 (1995), 503-526.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2000) Automatic Ear Recognition by Force Field Transformations. At IEE Colloquium: Visual Biometrics IEE Colloquium: Visual Biometrics. 8/1-8/5.

Shutler, Jamie D., Nixon, Mark S. and Harris, Chris J. (2000) Statistical Gait Recognition via Velocity Moments. At IEE Colloquium: Visual Biometrics IEE Colloquium: Visual Biometrics. 11/1-11/5.

Tatem, Andrew J., Lewis, Hugh G., Atkinson, Peter and Nixon, MarkS. (2000) Land Cover Mapping at the Sub-Pixel Scale using a Hopfield Neural Network. At Proceedings 28th Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment Proceedings 28th Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment. pp. 47-51.

Nixon, Mark S. (2000) Approaches to Automatic Gait Recognition; a New Biometric. At Natural Computing Applications Forum Spring Meeting Natural Computing Applications Forum Spring Meeting.

Tatem, Andrew J., Atkinson, Peter and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) On the use of Hopfield Neural Nets for Sub-Pixel land Cover Area Estimation. Proceedings of The 25th Conference of the Remote Sensing Society. 08 - 10 Sep 1999. pp. 873-880.

Hurley, D. J., Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (1999) Force Field Energy Functionals for Image Feature Extraction. Pridmore, T. and Elliman, D. (eds.) At Proc. 10th British Machine Vision Conference BMVC99 Proc. 10th British Machine Vision Conference BMVC99. pp. 604-613.

Davies, C. J. and Nixon, Mark S. (1996) Three Dimensional Sensing via Coloured Spots. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Huang, Ping Sheng, Nixon, Mark S. and Harris, Chris J. (1999) Automatic Gait Recognition via Statistical Approaches. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Ng, Liang Shing, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (1999) Combining Multiple Features in Texture Classification. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Nash, Jason M., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (1999) Evidence Gathering for Dynamic Feature Extraction. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Shutler, Jamie D., Nixon, Mark S. and Harris, Chris J. (2000) Statistical Gait Description via Temporal Moments. At Proc. 4th IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation Proc. 4th IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. pp. 291-295.

Jones, Mark P. and Nixon, Mark S. (1996) A Low Frequency Acoustic Method for Detecting Abnormalities in the Human Thorax. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Muammar, Hani K. and Nixon, Mark S. (1990) Extending the Hough Transform through Alternative Shape Parameterisations. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Nixon, Mark S. (2000) Recognising People by the Way They Walk.

Sharman, Karl J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2000) Non-Invasive 3D Dynamic Object Analysis. At Proc 4th IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation Proc 4th IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. pp. 214-218.

Davies, C. J. and Nixon, M. S. (1998) A Hough Transfrom for Detecting the Location and Orientation of Three-Dimensional Surfaces via Color Encoded Spots. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 28 (1), 90-95.

Grant, Michael G., Nixon, Mark S. and Lewis, Paul H. (2000) Parameterised Moving Shape Extraction. At Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference BMVC2000 Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference BMVC2000. pp. 202-211.

Montiel, Maria E., Aguado, Alberto S. and Nixon, Mark S. (2000) On Resolving Ambiguities in Arbitrary-Shape extraction by the HT. At Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference BMVC2000 Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference BMVC2000. pp. 576-585.

Aguado, Alberto S., Montiel, Maria E. and Nixon, Mark S. (2000) Invariant Characterization of the Hough Transform for Pose Estimation of Arbitrary Shapes. At Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference BMVC2000 Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference BMVC2000. pp. 785-794.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2000) A NEW FORCE FIELD TRANSFORM FOR EAR AND FACE RECOGNITION. At Proceedings of the IEEE 2000 International Conference on Image Processing ICIP2000 Proceedings of the IEEE 2000 International Conference on Image Processing ICIP2000. pp. 25-28.

Nixon, Mark S. (2000) Special Issue: British Machine Vision Conference 1998. Image and Vision Computing, 18 (9), 645.

Tatem, Andrew, Lewis, Hugh, Nixon, Mark S. and Atkinson, Peter (2000) Land cover simulation and estimation at the sub-pixel scale using a Hopfield neural network. At Proceeding Remote Sensing Society Conference 2000 Proceeding Remote Sensing Society Conference 2000.

Zheng, Yalin, Nixon, Mark S. and Allen, Robert (2000) Finding Lumbar Vertebrae by Evidence Gathering. At 6th Annual Scientific Conference of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine 6th Annual Scientific Conference of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. pp. 95-96.

Shutler, Jamie D., Nixon, Mark S. and Harris, Chris J. (2000) Global Statistical Description of Temporal Features. At Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. pp. 720-726.

Sharman, Karl J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2000) Towards a Markerless Human Gait Analysis System. At Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photgrammetry and Remote Sensing Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photgrammetry and Remote Sensing. pp. 713-719.

Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2000) On Measuring Trajectory-Invariant Gait Signatures. At Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Proc. XIX Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. pp. 114-121.

Hayfron-Acquah, James B., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2001) Automatic Gait Recognition via the Generalised Symmetry Operator. At BMVA Workshop Understanding Visual Behaviour BMVA Workshop Understanding Visual Behaviour.

Foster, Jeff P., Prugel-Bennett, Adam and Nixon, Mark S. (2001) New Area Measures for Automatic Gait Recognition. At BMVA Workshop Understanding Visual Behaviour BMVA Workshop Understanding Visual Behaviour.

Tatem, Andrew J., Atkinson, Peter, Lewis, Hugh G. and Nixon, Mark S. (2001) Super-resolution target identification from remotely sensed images using a Hopfield neural network. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39 (4), 781-796.

Foster, J.P., Nixon, M.S. and Prugel-Bennett, A. (2001) New Area Based Measures for Gait Recognition. Bigun, Josef and Smeraldi, Fabrizio (eds.) At Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication. pp. 312-7.

Hayfron-Acquah, James B., Nixon, Mark. S. and Carter, John N. (2001) Automatic Gait Recognition by Symmetry Analysis. Bigun, Josef and Smeraldi, Fabrizio (eds.) At Audio-and-Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication Audio-and-Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication. pp. 272-277.

Zheng, Yalin, Nixon, Mark S. and Allen, Robert (2000) Lumbar Spine Location in Fluoroscopic Images by Evidence Gathering. Arridge, Simon and Todd-Pokropek, Andrew (eds.) At Proceedings of Medical Image Understanding and Analysis MIUA2000 Proceedings of Medical Image Understanding and Analysis MIUA2000. pp. 45-48.

Zheng, Yalin, Nixon, Mark S and Allen, Robert (2001) Automatic Lumbar Vertebrae Registration Using the Hough Transform in Digital Videofluoroscopy. At 7th Annual Scientific Conference of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine 7th Annual Scientific Conference of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

Aguado, Alberto S., Montiel, Maria E. and Nixon, Mark S. (2001) Improving the Hough Transform gathering process for affine transformations. Pattern Recognition Letters, 22 (9), 959-969.

Shutler, Jamie D. and Nixon, Mark S. (2001) Zernike Velocity Moments for Description and Recognition of Moving Shapes. At Proc. BMVC 2001 Proc. BMVC 2001. pp. 705-714.

Allen, Robert, Zheng, Yalin and Nixon, Mark S (2001) Measurement of the Kinematics of the Lumbar Spine in vivo. At International Conference on Biomechanics combined with Annual Scientific Meeting of Taiwanese Society of Biomechanics International Conference on Biomechanics combined with Annual Scientific Meeting of Taiwanese Society of Biomechanics. p. 25.

Zheng, Yalin, Nixon, Mark S and Allen, Robert (2001) Automatic Lumbar Vertebrae Segmentation in Fluoroscopic Images via Optimised Concurrent Hough Transform. At 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2001) Extended Model-Based Automatic Gait Recognition of Walking and Running. At Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, AVBPA 2001 Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, AVBPA 2001. pp. 278-283.

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Gait Recognition By Walking and Running: A Model-Based Approach. At Proceedings Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV 2002 Proceedings Asian Conference on Computer Vision, ACCV 2002. pp. 1-6.

Hayfron-Acquah, James B., Nixon, Mark. S. and carter, John N. (2001) Recognising Human and Animal Movement by Symmetry. At Int. Conf. on Image Processing, ICIP 2001 Int. Conf. on Image Processing, ICIP 2001. pp. 290-293.

Tatem, Andrew, Lewis, Hugh, Atkinson, Peter and Nixon, Mark S. (2002) Super-Resolution Land Cover Pattern Prediction Using a Hopfield Neural Network. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 79, 1-14.

Forcer, T M, Nixon, M S and Zwolinski, M (2002) An integrated framework for digital electronics education - programmable logic and IC design tools. At Engineering Education 2002 - Professional Engineering Scenarios Engineering Education 2002 - Professional Engineering Scenarios. 37/1-37/6.

Aguado, Alberto S., Montiel, Maria E. and Nixon, Mark S. (2002) Invariant Characterisation of the Hough Transform for Pose Estimation of Arbitrary Shapes. Pattern Recognition, 35 (5), 1083-1097.

Tatem, A. J., Lewis, H. G., Atkinson, P. and Nixon, M. S. (2002) Super-Resolution Land Cover Pattern Prediction using a Hopfield Neural Network. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 79, 1-14.

Tatem, A. J., Lewis, H. G., Atkinson, P. and Nixon, M. S. (2002) Land Cover Mapping at the Sub-pixel Scale using a Hopfield Neural Network. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 3, 184-190.

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Performance Analysis on New Biometric Gait Motion Model. At Proceedings of Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation Proceedings of Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation.

Yam, ChewYean, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) On the Relationship of Human Walking and Running: Automatic Person Identification by Gait. At International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2002) International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2002). pp. 287-290.

Chen, J.L., Gunn, S.R. and Nixon, M.S. (2001) A model-based image segmentation framework using labeled and unlabeled data. At Int. Conf. on Advanced Concepts For Intelligent Vision Systems Int. Conf. on Advanced Concepts For Intelligent Vision Systems, Germany. pp. 112-116.

Chen, J.L., Gunn, S.R., Nixon, M.S., Myers, R.P. and Gunn, R.N. (2000) A Supervised Method for PET Reference Region Extraction. At Medical Image Understanding and Analysis Medical Image Understanding and Analysis. pp. 179-182.

Chen, J.L., Gunn, S.R., Nixon, M.S. and Gunn, R.N. (2001) Markov Random Field Models for Segmentation of PET Images. Insana, Michael F. and Leahy, Richard M. (eds.) At Information Processing in Medical Imaging Information Processing in Medical Imaging. p. 468.

Yoo, Jang-Hee, Nixon, Mark S. and Harris, Chris J. (2002) Extracting Human Gait Signatures by Body Segment Properties. At Proc. IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation Proc. IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation. pp. 35-39.

Yoo, Jang-Hee, Nixon, Mark S. and Harris, Chris J. (2002) Extraction and Description of Moving Human Body by Periodic Motion Analysis. At Proc. ISCA 17th International Conference on Computers and Their Applications Proc. ISCA 17th International Conference on Computers and Their Applications. pp. 110-113.

Yoo, Jang-Hee, Nixon, Mark S. and Harris, Chris J. (2002) Extracting Gait Signatures based on Anatomical Knowledge. At BMVA Symposium on Advancing Biometric Technologies BMVA Symposium on Advancing Biometric Technologies.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Force Field Energy Functionals for Image Feature Extraction. Image and Vision Computing, 20, 311-317.

Zheng, Yalin, Allen, Robert and Nixon, Mark S (2002) Lumbar Spine Motion Analysis via Automatic Segmentation. At IV World Congress of Biomechanics IV World Congress of Biomechanics, Canada. 04 - 09 Aug 2002. CD-ROM.

Tatem, AJ, Lewis, HG, Atkinson, P and Nixon, MS (2001) Super-resolution mapping of multiple-scale land cover features using a Hopfield neural network. At IEEE 2001 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IEEE 2001 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Australia. 3200 -3202.

Tatem, AJ, Lewis, HG, Atkinson, P and Nixon, MS (2001) Super-resolution target identification from remotely sensed images using a Hopfield neural network. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39 (4), 781-796.

Nixon, MS and Aguado, AS (2002) Feature Extraction & Image Processing, Butterworth Heinmann/ Newnes ,

Hayfron-Acquah, James, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Human Identification by Spatio-Temporal Symmetry. At International Conference on Pattern Recognition International Conference on Pattern Recognition. pp. 632-635.

Manslow, John F. and Nixon, Mark S. (2002) On the Ambiguity Induced by a Remote Sensor’s PSF. In, Foody, Giles and Atkinson, Peter (eds.) Uncertainty in Remote Sensing and GIS. Wiley, pp. 37-58. ,

Tatem, Andrew, Lewis, Hugh, Atkinson, Peter and Nixon, Mark S. (2002) Super-Resolution Land Cover Mapping from Remotely-Sensed Imagery using a Hopfield Neural Network. In, Foody, Giles and Atkinson, Peter (eds.) Uncertainty in Remote Sensing &amp; Geographical Information Science. Wiley, pp. 77-98. ,

Jewell, Michael O, Nixon, Mark and Prugel-Bennett, Adam (2003) CBS: A Concept-Based Sequencer for Soundtrack Composition. Ng, Kia, Busch, Christoph and Nesi, Paolo (eds.) At 3rd International Conference on Web Delivering of Music 3rd International Conference on Web Delivering of Music. pp. 105-108.

Zheng, Yalin, Allen, Robert and Nixon, Mark S (2003) Lumbar spine visualisation based on kinematic analysis from videofluoroscopic imaging. Medical Engineering & Physics, 25 (3), 171-179.

Yoo, Jang H, Nixon, Mark S and Harris, Chris J (2002) Model-driven statistical analysis of human gait motion. At ICIP 2002 International Conference on Image Processing ICIP 2002 International Conference on Image Processing, United States. 22 - 25 Sep 2002. pp. 285-288.

Sharman, Karl, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) Extraction and description of 3D (articulated) moving objects. At First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission, Italy. 19 - 21 Jun 2002. pp. 664-667.

Yam, Chew Y, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2002) Automated Markerless Analysis of Human Walking and Running by Computer Vision. At IV World Congress on Biomechanics IV World Congress on Biomechanics, Canada. no pages-(CD.

Shutler, Jamie, Grant, Mike, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2002) On a Large Sequence-Based Human Gait Database. At Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Soft Computing Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Soft Computing, United Kingdom. pp. 66-72.

Foster, Jeff, Nixon, Mark S and Prugel-Bennett, Adam (2002) Gait Recognition by Moment Based Descriptors. At 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Soft Computing 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Soft Computing, United Kingdom. pp. 78-84.

Yam, Chew Y, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2002) Automated Non-Invasive Human Locomotion Extraction Invariant to Camera Sagittal View. At International Congress on Biomedical and Medical Engineering International Congress on Biomedical and Medical Engineering, Singapore. no pages-(CD).

Nixon, Mark S., Carter, John N., Shutler, Jamie and Grant, Mike (2002) New Advances in Automatic Gait Recognition. Elsevier Information Security Technical Report, 7 (4), 23-35.

Kittler, Josef and Nixon, Mark S. (eds.) (2003) Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, Springer-Verlag (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2688) ,

Hayfron-Acquah, James, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Automatic gait recognition by symmetry analysis. Pattern Recognition Letters, 24, 2175-2183.

Yoo, Jang-Hee and Nixon, Mark S. (2003) On Laboratory Gait Analysis via Computer Vision. At AISB ’03 Symposium on Biologically-Inspired Machine Vision, Theory and Application AISB ’03 Symposium on Biologically-Inspired Machine Vision, Theory and Application, United Kingdom. 07 - 11 Apr 2003. pp. 109-113.

Yoo, Jang-Hee and Nixon, Mark S. (2003) Markerless Human Gait Analysis via Image Sequences. At International Society of Biomechanics XIXth Congress International Society of Biomechanics XIXth Congress, New Zealand. CD-ROM.

Nixon, Mark S., Carter, John N., Grant, Michael G., Gordon, Layla G. and Hayfron-Acquah, James B. (2003) Automatic recognition by gait: progress and prospects. Sensor Review, 23 (4), 323-331.

Myerscough, Peter J, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Guiding Optical Flow Estimation. Harvey, Richard and Bagham, J. Andrew (eds.) At British Machine Vision Conference British Machine Vision Conference. pp. 681-690.

Al-Mazeed, Ahmad H., Nixon, Mark S. and Gunn, Steve R. (2003) Fusing Complementary Operators to Enhance Foreground/Background Segmentation. Harvey, Richard and Bagham, J. Andrew (eds.) At British Machine Vision Conference 2003 British Machine Vision Conference 2003. pp. 501-510.

Prismall, Stuart P., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) ACCURATE OBJECT RECONSTRUCTION BY STATISTICAL MOMENTS. At VIE 2003 VIE 2003, United Kingdom. pp. 1-5.

Mowbray, Stuart D. and Nixon, Mark S. (2003) Automatic Gait Recognition via Fourier Descriptors of Deformable Objects. Kittler, Josef and Nixon, Mark S. (eds.) At Audio Visual Biometric Person Authentication Audio Visual Biometric Person Authentication. pp. 566-573.

Prismall, Stuart P., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2003) Novel Temporal Views of Moving Objects for Gait Biometrics. Kittler, Josef and Nixon, Mark S. (eds.) At Audio Visual Biometric Person Authentication Audio Visual Biometric Person Authentication. pp. 725-733.

Prismall, Stuart P., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2002) On Moving Object Reconstruction By Moments. Marshall, Dave and Rosin, Paul (eds.) At British Machine Vision Conference British Machine Vision Conference. pp. 1-10.

Foster, Jeff P., Nixon, Mark S. and Prugel-Bennett, Adam P. (2001) Recognising Movement and Gait by Masking Functions. Bigun, Josef (ed.) At Audio-Visual Biometric Person Authentication Audio-Visual Biometric Person Authentication, Sweden.

Foster, Jeff P., Nixon, Mark S. and Prudel-Bennett, Adam (2001) New Area Based Metrics for Automatic Gait Recognition. At British Machine Vision Conference British Machine Vision Conference. pp. 233-242.

Foster, Jeff P., Nixon, Mark S. and Prugel-Bennett, Adam (2003) Automatic gait recognition using area-based metrics. Pattern Recognition Letters, 24, 2489-2497.

Wagg, David K and Nixon, Mark S (2003) Model-Based Gait Enrolment in Real-World Imagery. At Workshop on Multimodal User Authentication Workshop on Multimodal User Authentication, United States. 11 - 12 Dec 2003. pp. 189-195.

Zheng, Yalin, Nixon, Mark S and Allen, Robert (2004) Automatic Segmentation of Lumbar Vertebrae in Digital Videofluoroscopic Imaging. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 23 (1), 45-52.

Yam, Chew Yean, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2004) Automated person recognition by walking and running via model-based approaches. Pattern Recognition, 37 (5).

Mowbray, S. D. and Nixon, M. S. (2004) Extraction and Recognition of Periodically Deforming Objects by Continuous, Spatio-temporal Shape Description. At IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.. 27 Jun - 02 Jul 2004.

Wagg, David K and Nixon, Mark S (2004) On Automated Model-Based Extraction and Analysis of Gait. Azada, Deeber (ed.) At 6th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition 6th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. 17 - 19 May 2004. pp. 11-16.

Bazin, A. I. and Nixon, M. S. (2004) Facial Verification Using Probabilistic Methods. At British Machine Vision Association Workshop on Biometrics British Machine Vision Association Workshop on Biometrics.

Wagg, David K and Nixon, Mark S (2004) Automated Markerless Extraction of Walking People Using Deformable Contour Models. Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, 15 (3-4), 399-406.

Kittler, J., Petrou, M. and Nixon, M. S. (eds.) (2004) Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2004), IEEE CS Press ,

Myerscough, P. J. and Nixon, M. S. (2004) Temporal Phase Congruency. At IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation SSIAI ’04 IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation SSIAI ’04, United States. pp. 76-79.

Veres, Galina, Gordon, Layla, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2004) What image information is important in silhouette-based gait recognition. At IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition conference IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition conference.

Manslow, J. F., Brown, M. and Nixon, M. S. (2000) On the Probabilistic Interpretation of Area Based Fuzzy Land Cover Mixing Proportions. In, Lek, S. and Guégan, J. F. (eds.) Artificial Neural Networks: Application to Ecology and Evolution. Springer, pp. 81-95. ,

Nixon, M. S. and Carter, J. N. (2004) Advances in Automatic Gait Recognition. At IEEE Face and Gesture Analysis 2004, FG04 IEEE Face and Gesture Analysis 2004, FG04. pp. 11-16.

Al-Mazeed, A. H., Nixon, M. S. and Gunn, S. R. (2004) Classifiers Combination for Improved Motion Segmentation. Campilho, A. and Kamel, M. (eds.) At International Conference on Image Analysis and Recognition International Conference on Image Analysis and Recognition, Portugal. 29 Sep - 01 Oct 2004. pp. 363-371.

Myerscough, Peter J and Nixon, Mark S (2004) Estimating the phase congruency of localised frequencies. At IEEE ICIP 2004 IEEE ICIP 2004.

Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2004) On gait as a biometric: progress and prospects. At Proc. EUSIPCO 2004 Proc. EUSIPCO 2004.

Myerscough, Peter J and Nixon, Mark S (2004) Measuring Temporal Phase Congruency. At BMVA Workshop Spatiotemporal Image Processing BMVA Workshop Spatiotemporal Image Processing.

Wagg, David K and Nixon, Mark S (2004) Automatic Model-Based Gait Recognition. At BMVA Workshop on Biometrics BMVA Workshop on Biometrics.

Tatem, A. J., Lewis, H. G., Nixon, M. S. and Atkinson, P. (2003) Increasing the spatial resolution of agricultural land cover maps using a Hopfield neural network. Int Journal of Geographic Information Sciences, 17 (7), 647-672.

Nixon, Mark S. (2004) Advances in New and Emerging Biometrics. At IEE Colloquium: the Challenge of Biometrics IEE Colloquium: the Challenge of Biometrics.

Hurley, David J., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2005) Force field feature extraction for ear biometrics. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 98, 491-512.

Bazin, Alex I. and Nixon, Mark S. (2005) Gait Verification Using Probabilistic Methods. At 7th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision 7th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision. pp. 50-55.

Bazin, Alex I. and Nixon, Mark S. (2005) Probabilistic combination of static and dynamic gait features for verification. Jain, Anil K. and Ratha, Nalini K. (eds.) At Biometric Technology for Human Identification II, SPIE Defense and Security Symposium Biometric Technology for Human Identification II, SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, United States. pp. 23-30.

Middleton, Lee, Wong, Sylvia C, Jewell, Michael O, Carter, John N and Nixon, Mark S (2005) Lightweight Agent Framework for Camera Array Applications. Khosla, Rajiv, Howlett, Robert J. and Jain, Lakhmi C. (eds.) At 9th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (KES) 9th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (KES), Australia. 14 - 16 Sep 2005. pp. 150-156.

Jewell, Michael O., Middleton, Lee, Nixon, Mark S., Prügel-Bennett, Adam and Wong, Sylvia C. (2005) A Distributed Approach to Musical Composition. Khosla, Rajiv, Howlett, Robert J. and Jain, Lakhmi C. (eds.) At 9th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (KES) 9th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems (KES), Australia. 14 - 16 Sep 2005. pp. 642-648.

Middleton, Lee, Wong, Sylvia C., Jewell, Michael O., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2005) A middleware for a large array of cameras. At IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Canada. 02 - 06 Aug 2005. pp. 3682-3687.

Jewell, Michael O., Nixon, Mark S. and Prugel-Bennett, Adam (2005) State-Based Sequencing: Directing The Evolution of Music. At International Computer Music Conference International Computer Music Conference. 05 - 09 Sep 2005.

Jewell, Michael O., Lawrence, K. Faith, Tuffield, Mischa M., Prugel-Bennett, Adam, Millard, David E., Nixon, Mark S., schraefel, m.c. and Shadbolt, Nigel R. (2005) OntoMedia: An Ontology for the Representation of Heterogeneous Media. At Multimedia Information Retrieval Workshop (MMIR 2005) SIGIR Multimedia Information Retrieval Workshop (MMIR 2005) SIGIR, Brazil.

Bazin, Alex I., Middleton, Lee and Nixon, Mark S. (2005) Probabilistic Fusion of Gait Features for Biometric Verification. At Eighth International Conference of Information Fusion, 2005. Eighth International Conference of Information Fusion, 2005., United States. 25 - 29 Jul 2005.

Veres, Galina V, Nixon, Mark S, Middleton, Lee and Carter, John N. (2005) Fusion of dynamic and static features for gait recognition over time. At Eighth International Conference of Information Fusion Eighth International Conference of Information Fusion, United States. 25 - 29 Jul 2005.

Lawrence, K. Faith, Tuffield, Mischa M., Jewell, Mike O., Prugel-Bennett, Adam, Millard, David E., Nixon, Mark S., schraefel, m. c. and Shadbolt, Nigel R. (2005) OntoMedia - Creating an Ontology for Marking Up the Contents of Heterogeneous Media. At Ontology Patterns for the Semantic Web ISWC-05 Workshop Ontology Patterns for the Semantic Web ISWC-05 Workshop.

Middleton, Lee, Buss, Alex A., Bazin, Alex I. and Nixon, Mark S. (2005) A floor sensor system for gait recognition. At Fourth IEEE Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies Fourth IEEE Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies, United States. 17 - 18 Oct 2005.

Nixon, Mark S., Tan, Tieniu N. and Chellappa, Rama (2005) Human Identification based on Gait, Springer (International Series on Biometrics) ,

Veres, Galina, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2005) Modelling the time-variant covariates for gait recognition. Kanade, T, Jain, A.K. and Ratha, N.K. (eds.) At AVBPA2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, AVBPA2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,, United States. 20 - 22 Jul 2005. pp. 597-606.

Veres, Galina, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2005) Model-based approaches for predicting gait changes over time. At International Workshop on Pattern Recognition International Workshop on Pattern Recognition.

Shutler, Jamie and Nixon, Mark S (2006) Zernike velocity moments for sequence-based description of moving features. Image and Vision Computing, 24 (4), 343-356.

BOUCHRIKA, I and NIXON, M. S. (2006) People Detection and Recognition using Gait for Automated Visual Surveillance. At IEE International Symposium on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention IEE International Symposium on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention, United Kingdom.

BOUCHRIKA, I. and NIXON, M. S. (2006) People Detection using Gait for Visual Surveillance. At BMVA Symposium on Detection vs Tracking BMVA Symposium on Detection vs Tracking, United Kingdom.

Middleton, Lee, Wagg, David K., Bazin, Alex I., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) Developing a non-intrusive biometric environment. At IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), China. 11 - 13 Oct 2006.

Merchant, Sara, Middleton, Lee and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) Walk Of Shame: Criminals Exposed.

Muir, David, Middleton, Lee and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) Can You Identify a Criminal By His Walk?

Rahmalan, Hidayah, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2006) On Crowd Density Estimation for Surveillance. At International Conference on Crime Detection and Prevention International Conference on Crime Detection and Prevention, United Kingdom.

Gething, P.W, Noor, A.M, Gikandi, P.W, Ogara, E, Hay, S.I, Nixon, M.S, Snow, R.W and Atkinson, P.M (2006) Improving imperfect data from health management information systems in Africa using space-time geostatistics. PLoS Medicine, 3 (6).

Middleton, Lee and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) Perp Walk Could Have Whole New Meaning.

Middleton, Lee, Wagg, David K., Bazin, Alex I., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) A smart environment for biometric capture. At IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, China.

Slattery, Sue, Middleton, Lee and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) Crime Walk.

BOUCHRIKA, I. and NIXON, M. S. (2006) Markerless Feature Extraction for Gait Analysis. At 5th Chapter Conference on Advances in Cybernetic Systems 5th Chapter Conference on Advances in Cybernetic Systems, United Kingdom. pp. 55-60.

Bazin, Alex I., Cole, Trevor, Kett, Brian and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) An Automated System for Contact Lens Inspection. Bebis, George (ed.) At 2nd International Symposium on Visual Computing 2nd International Symposium on Visual Computing, United States. pp. 141-150.

Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2006) Automatic Recognition by Gait. Proceedings of the IEEE, 94 (11), 2013-2024.

Yoo, Jang, Hwang, D and Nixon, Mark (2006) Gender classification in human gait using support vector machine. At ADVANCED CONCEPTS FOR INTELLIGENT VISION SYSTEMS ADVANCED CONCEPTS FOR INTELLIGENT VISION SYSTEMS. pp. 138-145.

Direkoglu, Cem and Nixon, Mark S. (2006) Low Level Moving-Feature Extraction Via Heat Flow Analogy. Bebis, G. (ed.) At 2nd International Symposium on Visual Computing, LNCS 2nd International Symposium on Visual Computing, LNCS, United States. 06 - 08 Nov 2006. pp. 243-252.

Gething, Pete, Noor, Abdisalan and Nixon, Mark (2006) Improving imperfect data from health management information systems in Africa using space-time geostatistics. PLoS Medicine, 3 (6), 825-831.

BOUCHRIKA, I and NIXON, M S (2007) Model-Based Feature Extraction for Gait Analysis and Recognition. At Mirage: Computer Vision / Computer Graphics Collaboration Techniques and Applications Mirage: Computer Vision / Computer Graphics Collaboration Techniques and Applications, France. pp. 150-160.

BOUCHRIKA, I and NIXON, M S (2007) Gait-Based Pedestrian Detection for Automated Surveillance. At International Conference on Computer Vision Systems International Conference on Computer Vision Systems, Germany.

Liu, Xin U and Nixon, Mark S (2006) Water flow based vessel detection in retinal images. At IET International Conference on Visual Information Engineering 2006 IET International Conference on Visual Information Engineering 2006, India. 26 - 28 Sep 2006. pp. 345-350.

Liu, Xin U and Nixon, Mark S (2006) Water Flow Based Complex Feature Extraction. At Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Belgium. 18 - 21 Sep 2006. pp. 833-845.

Veres, Galina V., Huynh, Trung Dong, Nixon, Mark S., Smart, Paul R. and Shadbolt, Nigel R. (2006) The Military Knowledge Information Fusion Via Semantic Web Technologies s.n. ,

Guo, Baofeng, Wang, Yi, Smart, Paul R, Shadbolt, Nigel R, Nixon, Mark S and Damarla, Raju (2007) Approaching Semantically-Mediated Acoustic Data Fusion. At 1st Annual Conference of the International Technology Alliance (ACITA'07) 1st Annual Conference of the International Technology Alliance (ACITA'07), United States. 25 - 27 Sep 2007.

Direkoglu, Cem and Nixon, Mark S (2007) Shape Extraction Via Heat Flow Analogy. Blanc-Talon, Jacques, Philips, Wilfried, Popescu, Dan and Scheunder, Paul (eds.) At International Conference on Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (Acivs 2007), LNCS 4678 International Conference on Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (Acivs 2007), LNCS 4678, Netherlands. 28 - 31 Aug 2007. pp. 553-564.

Guo, Baofeng, Wang, Yi, Smart, Paul R, Shadbolt, Nigel R, Nixon, Mark S and Damarla, Raju (2007) Approaching Semantically-Mediated Acoustic Data Fusion. At Military Communications Conference (MILCOM) Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), United States. 29 - 31 Oct 2007.

Hurley, D.J., Arbab-Zavar, B. and Nixon, M.S. (2007) The ear as a biometric. At 15th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO-2007) 15th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO-2007), Poland. 03 - 07 Sep 2007. pp. 25-29.

Guo, Baofeng and Nixon, Mark (2007) Gait Feature Subset Selection by Mutual Information. At IEEE Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems IEEE Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems.

Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe, Nixon, Mark and Hurley, David (2007) On Model-Based Analysis of Ear Biometrics. At First IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems (BTAS 07) First IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems (BTAS 07), United States. 27 - 29 Sep 2007.

Gething, P.W., Atkinson, P.M., Noor, A.M., Gikandi, P.W., Hay, S.I. and Nixon, M.S. (2007) A local space–time kriging approach applied to a national outpatient malaria data set. Computers & Geosciences, 33 (10), 1337-1350. (doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2007.05.006).

Liu, Xin and Nixon, Mark (2007) Medical Image Segmentation by Water Flow. At Medical Image Understanding and Analysis MIUA 2007 Medical Image Understanding and Analysis MIUA 2007, United Kingdom.

Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe and Nixon, Mark (2007) On Shape-Mediated Enrolment in Ear Biometrics. At 3rd International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC 2007) 3rd International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC 2007), United States. 26 - 28 Nov 2007.

Goffredo, Michela, Spencer, Nicholas, Pearce, Daniel, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2007) Human Perambulation as a Self Calibrating Biometric. In, Lecture Notes in Computer Science - Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, pp. 139-153. ,

Gething, Peter, Noor, Absilan, Gikandi, Priscilla, Hay, Simon, Nixon, Mark and Atkinson, Peter (2008) Developing geostatistical space-time models to predict outpatient treatment burdens from incomplete national data. Geographical Analysis, 40 (2), 167-188.

Nixon, Mark and Aguado, Alberto (2008) Feature extraction & image processing, vol. Second, Academic Press ,

Liu, Xin U. and Nixon, Mark S. (2007) Image and Volume Segmentation by Water Flow. At Proc USVC 2007/ LNCS Proc USVC 2007/ LNCS, United States. pp. 62-74.

Hurley, David J., Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe and Nixon, Mark S. (2007) The Ear as a Biometric. In, Jain, Anil and Flynn, Pat (eds.) Handbook of Biometrics. Berlin, DE. Springer, pp. 131-150. ,

Smart, Paul R, Mott, David, Gentle, Edward, Braines, Dave, Sieck, Winston, Poltrock, Steven, Houghton, Peter, Preece, Alun, Nixon, Mark, Strub, Michael, Roberts, David, Verma, Dinesh and Shadbolt, Nigel (2008) Holistan Revisited: Demonstrating Agent- and Knowledge-Based Capabilities for Future Coalition Military Operations. At 2nd Annual Conference of the International Technology Alliance (ACITA'08) 2nd Annual Conference of the International Technology Alliance (ACITA'08), United Kingdom. 16 - 18 Sep 2008.

Guo, Baofeng, Nixon, Mark and Damarla, R (2008) Acoustic Information Fusion for Ground Vehicle Classification. The 11th International Conference of Information Fusion, Germany. 30 Jun - 03 Jul 2008. pp. 280-286.

Verma, D, Wu, C, Brown, T, Bar-Noy, A and Nixon, Mark (2008) Location dependent heuristics for sensor coverage planning. At SPIE Symposium on SPIE Defense and Security Symposium SPIE Symposium on SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. 16 - 20 Mar 2008.

Bouchrika, Imed and Nixon, Mark (2008) Exploratory Factor Analysis of Gait Recognition. At 8th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition 8th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Netherlands.

Bouchrika, Imed and Nixon, Mark (2008) Gait Recognition by Dynamic Cues. At 19th IEEE International Conference on Pattern Recognition 19th IEEE International Conference on Pattern Recognition, United States.

Hare, Jonathan, Samangooei, Sina, Lewis, Paul and Nixon, Mark (2008) Semantic spaces revisited: investigating the performance of auto-annotation and semantic retrieval using semantic spaces. At CIVR '08: The 2008 international conference on Content-based image and video retrieval CIVR '08: The 2008 international conference on Content-based image and video retrieval, Canada. 07 - 09 Jul 2008. pp. 359-368.

Guo, Baofeng, Nixon, Mark and Damarla, Raju (2008) Acoustic Information Fusion for Ground Vehicle Classification. Proc. 2nd Annual COnf. ITA.

Verma, Dinesh, Wu, Chai and Nixon, Mark (2008) Location Dependent Heuristics for Sensor Coverage Planning. At Proc Second Conf ITA Proc Second Conf ITA.

Verma, Dinesh, Brown, Ted, Kaplan, Lance and Nixon, Mark (2008) The Green Zone Protection Problem. At Proc Second Conf ITA Proc Second Conf ITA.

Goffredo, Michela, Seely, Richard D., Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2008) Markerless View Independent Gait Analysis with Self-camera Calibration. At IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition 2008 IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition 2008, Netherlands. 17 - 19 Sep 2008.

Nixon, Mark, Liu, Xin, Direkoglu, Cem and Hurley, David (2008) On Using Physical Analogies for Feature and Shape Extraction in Computer Vision. At 1st Conf Visions of Computer Science 1st Conf Visions of Computer Science, United Kingdom.

Goffredo, Michela, Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2008) Front-view Gait Recognition. At IEEE Second International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 08) IEEE Second International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 08), United States. 29 Sep - 01 Oct 2008.

Samangooei, Sina, Nixon, Mark and Guo, Baofeng (2008) The Use of Semantic Human Description as a Soft Biometric. At Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems, United States. 29 Sep - 01 Oct 2008.

Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe and Nixon, Mark (2008) Robust Log-Gabor Filter for Ear Biometrics. At 19th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2008) 19th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2008), United States. 08 - 11 Dec 2008.

Bustard, John D. and Nixon, Mark (2008) Robust 2D Ear Registration and Recognition Based on SIFT Point Matching. At BTAS 2008 BTAS 2008.

Direkoglu, Cem and Nixon, Mark S. (2008) Shape Classification using Multiscale Fourier-based Description in 2-D Space. At IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing (ICSP 2008) IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing (ICSP 2008), China.

Direkoglu, Cem and Nixon, Mark S. (2008) Image-based Multiscale Shape Description using Gaussian Filter. At IEEE Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing (ICVGIP 2008) IEEE Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing (ICVGIP 2008), India.

Seely, Richard David, Samangooei, Sina, Middleton, Lee, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2008) The University of Southampton Multi-Biometric Tunnel and introducing a novel 3D gait dataset. At Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, United States.

Goffredo, Michela, Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2008) Performance Analysis for Gait in Camera Networks. At ACM Workshop on Analysis and Retrieval of Events, Actions, and Workflows in Video Streams ACM Workshop on Analysis and Retrieval of Events, Actions, and Workflows in Video Streams, Canada.

Bouchrika, Imed, Goffredo, Michela, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2009) Covariate Analysis for View-point Independent Gait Recognition. At The 3rd IAPR/IEEE International Conference on Biometrics The 3rd IAPR/IEEE International Conference on Biometrics, Italy.

Samangooei, Sina and Nixon, Mark (2008) Performing Content-based Retrieval of Humans using Gait Biometrics. At SAMT 2008 SAMT 2008. pp. 105-120.

Seely, Richard, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2008) Spatio-temporal 3D Gait Recognition. At 3D Video – Analysis, Display and Applications 3D Video – Analysis, Display and Applications, United Kingdom.

Seely, Richard, Goffredo, Michela, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2009) View Invariant Gait Recognition. In, Handbook of Remote Biometrics: for Surveillance and Security. Springer, pp. 61-82. ,

Goffredo, Michela, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2008) 2D Markerless Gait Analysis. 4th European Congress for Medical and Biomedical Engineering 2008. 23 - 27 Nov 2008.

nixon, mark (1985) Application of the Hough transform to correct for linear variation of background illumination in images. Pattern Recognition Letters, 3 (3), 191-194.

nixon, mark (1985) Eye Spacing Measurement for Facial Recognition. At Proc. SPIE Applications of Digital Image Processing Proc. SPIE Applications of Digital Image Processing. pp. 279-283.

Tistarelli, Massimo and Nixon, Mark (2009) Advances in Biometrics, Third IEEE/ IAPR International Conference on Biometrics ICB 2009, vol. 5558, Springer (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5558) ,

Guo, Baofeng and Nixon, Mark (2009) Gait feature subset selection by mutual information. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part A: Systems and Humans, 39 (1), 36-46. (doi:10.1109/TSMCA.2008.2007977).

Guo, Baofeng, Nixon, Mark and Damarla, Raju (2009) Acoustic Vehicle Classification by Fusing with Semantic Annotation. At 12th IEEE International Conference on Information Fusion 12th IEEE International Conference on Information Fusion.

Nixon, Mark, Hurley, David, Liu, Xin and Direkoglu, Cem (2011) On Using Physical Analogies for Feature and Shape Extraction in Computer Vision. The Computer Journal, 54 (1), 11-25.

Al-Huseiny, Muayed, Mahmoodi, Sasan and Nixon, Mark (2009) Level Set Gait Analysis for Synthesis and Reconstruction. At Lecture Notes in Computer Science-5th International Symposium on Visual Computing Lecture Notes in Computer Science-5th International Symposium on Visual Computing. 01 Nov - 01 Dec 2009. pp. 377-386.

Al-Huseiny, Muayed, Mahmoodi, Sasan and Nixon, Mark (2009) Gait Sequence Synthesis and Reconstruction. At British Machine Vision Conference British Machine Vision Conference, United Kingdom.

Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2009) Recognizing People in Non-Intersecting Camera Views. International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention.

Goffredo, Michela, Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2009) Performance Analysis for Automated Gait Extraction and Recognition in Multi-Camera Surveillance. Journal of Multimedia Tools and Application.

Goffredo, Michela, Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2010) Self-calibrating view-invariant gait biometrics. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B (Cybernetics), 40 (4), 997 -1008. (doi:10.1109/TSMCB.2009.2031091). (PMID:19884085)

yam, cy and Nixon, Mark (2009) Model-based Gait Recognition. In, Enclycopedia of Biometrics. Springer, pp. 633-639. ,

Hurley, David and Nixon, Mark (2009) Physical Analogies for Ear Recognition. In, Encyclopedia of Biometrics. Springer, pp. 1082-1088. ,

Aguado, A. S., Montiel, M. E. and Nixon, Mark (2005) Texture classification via conditional histograms. Pattern Recognition Letters, 26 (11), 1740-1751.

Nixon, M.S. (2008) Automated human recognition by gait using neural network. 2008 First Workshops on Image Processing Theory, Tools and Applications (IPTA), 6 pp.-.

Al-Huseiny, Muayed, Mahmoodi, Sasan and Nixon, Mark (2010) Gait Learning-Based Regenerative Model: a Level Set Approach. At the 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition the 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Turkey.

Bustard, John and Nixon, Mark (2010) Toward Unconstrained Ear Recognition From Two-Dimensional Images. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (A), 40 (3), 486-494.

Samangooei, Sina and Nixon, Mark (2010) Performing content-based retrieval of humans using gait biometrics. Multimed Tools Applications, 49 (1), 195-212.

Bustard, John and Nixon, Mark (2010) 3D Morphable Model Construction for Robust Ear and Face Recognition. At IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Patern Recognition CVPR 10 IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Patern Recognition CVPR 10.

Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe and Nixon, Mark (2011) On guided model-based analysis for ear biometrics. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 115 (4), 487-502. (doi:10.1016/j.cviu.2010.11.014).

Cummings, Alastair, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2010) Circle Detection Using the Image Ray Transform. At VISAPP VISAPP, France. 17 - 21 May 2010.

Matovski, Darko, Nixon, Mark, Mahmoodi, Sasan and Carter, John (2010) The Effect of Time on the Performance of Gait Biometrics. At IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, United States.

Al-Huseiny, Muayed, Mahmoodi, Sasan and Nixon, Mark (2010) Robust Rigid Shape Registration Method Using a Level Set Formulation. At Lecture Notes in Computer Science-6th International Symposium on Visual Computing Lecture Notes in Computer Science-6th International Symposium on Visual Computing, United States. pp. 252-261.

Ibrahim, Mina Ibrahim, Nixon, Mark and Mahmoodi, Sasan (2010) Shaped Wavelets for Curvilinear Structures for Ear Biometrics. At Lecture Notes in Computer Science- 6th International Symposium on Visual Computing Lecture Notes in Computer Science- 6th International Symposium on Visual Computing, United States.

Cummings, Alastair, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2010) A Novel Ray Analogy for Enrolment of Ear Biometrics. At IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, United States.

Cummings, Alastair and Nixon, Mark (2010) Retinal Vessel Extraction with the Image Ray Transform. At International Symposium on Visual Computing International Symposium on Visual Computing, United States.

Reid, Daniel and Nixon, Mark (2010) Imputing Human Descriptions in Semantic Biometrics. At Multimedia in Forensics, Security and Intelligence Multimedia in Forensics, Security and Intelligence.

Nixon, Mark S., Bouchrika, Imed, Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe and Carter, John N. (2010) On use of biometrics in forensics: gait and ear. At European Signal Processing Conference European Signal Processing Conference, Denmark. 23 - 27 Aug 2010.

Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe, Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2010) On Supervised Human Activity Analysis for Structured Environments. At 6th International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC10) 6th International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC10), United States. 01 Nov - 01 Dec 2010.

Direkoglu, Cem and Nixon, Mark (2011) Moving-edge detection via heat flow analogy. Pattern Recognition Letters, 32, 270-279.

Jung, Sung Uk and Nixon, Mark (2010) On Using Gait Biometrics to Enhance Face Pose Estimation. At IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, September, Washington DC, USA IEEE Fourth Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, September, Washington DC, USA.

Matovski, Darko, Nixon, Mark, Mahmoodi, Sasan and Carter, John (2012) The effect of time on gait recognition performance. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 7 (2), 543-552. (doi:10.1109/TIFS.2011.2176118).

yoo, jang hee and Nixon, Mark (2011) Automated Markerless Analysis of Human Gait Motion for Recognition and Classification. ETRI Journal, 33 (3), 259-266.

Direkoglu, Cem and Nixon, Mark (2011) Shape classification via image-based multiscale description. Pattern Recognition, 44 (9), 2134-2146. (doi:10.1016/j.patcog.2011.02.016).

Bouchrika, Imed, Goffredo, Michaela, Carter, John and Nixon, Mark (2011) On Using Gait in Forensic Biometrics. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56 (4), 882-889. (doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01793.x).

Veres, Galina, Middleton, Lee, Sabeur, Zoheir, Bouchrika, Imed, Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe, Carter, John, Nixon, Mark, Grabner, Helmut, Stalder, Severin, Van Gool, Luc, Morzinger, Roland, Thaler, Marcus, Rene, Schuster, Albert, Hofman and Thallinger, Georg (2010) Tools for semi-automatic monitoring of industrial workflows. At ACM Multimedia 2010 ACM Multimedia 2010, Italy. 25 - 29 Oct 2010.

Guo, Baofeng, Nixon, Mark and Damarla, Thyagaraju (2011) Improving acoustic vehicle classification by information fusion. Pattern Analysis and Applications, 15 (1), 29-43. (doi:10.1007/s10044-011-0202-5).

Waller, Ben, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2011) Texture Segmentation by Evidence Gathering. At 3rd BMVC Workshop 3rd BMVC Workshop, United Kingdom.

Ibrahim, Mina Ibrahim, Nixon, Mark and Mahmoodi, Sasan (2011) The Effect of Time on Ear Biometrics. At The first International Joint Conference on Biometrics The first International Joint Conference on Biometrics, United States. 11 - 13 Oct 2011.

Cummings, Alastair H., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2011) The image ray transform for structural feature detection. Pattern Recognition Letters, 32 (15), 2053-2060.

Reid, Daniel and Nixon, Mark (2011) Using Comparative Human Descriptions for Soft Biometrics. At The first International Joint Conference on Biometrics The first International Joint Conference on Biometrics, United States. 11 - 13 Oct 2011.

Ariyanto, Gunawan and Nixon, Mark (2011) Model-Based 3D Gait Biometrics. At International Joint Conference on Biometrics 2011 International Joint Conference on Biometrics 2011. 11 - 13 Oct 2011.

Abaza, Ayman, Ross, Arun, Hebert, Christina, Harrison, Mary Ann F. and Nixon, Mark (2013) A Survey on Ear Biometrics. ACM Computing Surveys, 45 (2), 22:1-22:35.

Samangooei, Sina, Bustard, John, Seely, Richard, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2011) On Acquisition and Analysis of a Dataset Comprising of Gait, Ear and Semantic data. In, Multibiometrics for Human Identification. CUP, pp. 277-301. ,

Reid, Daniel, Nixon, Mark and Stevenage, Sarah (2011) Identifying humans using comparative descriptions. At International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention, United Kingdom. 03 - 04 Nov 2011.

Cushen, George and Nixon, Mark (2011) Markerless Real-Time Garment Retexturing From Monocular 3D Reconstruction. At IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications (ICSIPA) IEEE International Conference on Signal and Image Processing Applications (ICSIPA), Malaysia.

Jung, Sung Uk and Nixon, Mark (2011) Detection Human Motion with Heel Strikes for Surveillance Analysis. At International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, Spain. 29 - 31 Aug 2011. pp. 9-16.

Jung, Sung Uk and Nixon, Mark (2011) Estimation of 3D Head Region using Gait Motion for Surveillance Video. At International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention, United Kingdom. 03 - 04 Nov 2011.

Cushen, George and Nixon, Mark S. (2012) Real-time semantic clothing segmentation. At International Symposium on Visual Computing International Symposium on Visual Computing, Greece.

Mahmoodi, Sasan, Al-Huseiny, Muayed and Nixon, Mark S. (2012) Similarity registration for shapes based on signed distance functions. At International Symposium on Visual Computing International Symposium on Visual Computing, Greece. 16 - 18 Jul 2012. 10 pp, pp. 599-609.

Matovski, D., Nixon, M., Mahmoodi, S. and Mansfield, T. (2012) On including quality in applied automatic gait recognition. At 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2012) 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2012), Japan. 11 - 15 Nov 2012. 4 pp.

Waller, Ben M, Nixon, Mark S and Carter, John N (2012) Colour texture segmentation using evidence gathering. At 1st IET Image Processing Conference 1st IET Image Processing Conference, United Kingdom. 03 - 04 Jul 2012. 6 pp.

Reid, Daniel, Samangooei, Sina, Chen, Cunjian, Nixon, Mark and Ross, Arun (2013) Soft biometrics for surveillance: an overview. In, Machine Learning: Theory and Applications. Elsevier, pp. 327-352. (Handbook of Statistics, , (doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53859-8.00013-8), 31) , (doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53859-8.00013-8).

Nixon, Mark S. and Jung, Sung Uk (2012) On using gait to enhance frontal face extraction. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 7 (6), 1802-1811. (doi:10.1109/TIFS.2012.2218598).

Nixon, Mark S. and Jung, Sung Uk (2012) Heel strike detection based on human walking movement for surveillance analysis. Pattern Recognition Letters.

Waller, Ben M., Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2012) Analysing Micro- and Macro-Structures in Textures. At 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems, Italy. 25 - 29 Nov 2012. 8 pp.

Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) The way we walk. [in special issue: Expert Witness Supplement] Solicitors Journal, Spring Issue, 15-16.

Nixon, Mark S. and Aguado, Alberto (2012) Feature Extraction & Image Processing for Computer Vision, Third Edition, Academic Press, 609pp. ,

Matovski, Darko, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Gait recognition. In, Ikeuchi, Katsushi (ed.) Encyclopedia of Computer Vision. Springer Science+Business Media. ,

Jung, Sung Uk and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) Heel strike detection based on human walking movement for surveillance analysis. [in special issue: Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns] Pattern Recognition Letters, 34 (8), 895-902. (doi:10.1016/j.patrec.2012.08.007).

Cushen, George and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) Mobile Visual Clothing Search. At IEEE International Workshop on Intelligent Mobile Vision IEEE International Workshop on Intelligent Mobile Vision.

Matthews, Tim, Nixon, Mark S. and Niranjan, Mahesan (2013) Enriching texture analysis with semantic data. At IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, United States. 25 - 27 Jun 2013.

Reid, Daniel and Nixon, Mark (2013) Human identification using facial comparative descriptions. At International Conference on Biometrics International Conference on Biometrics, Spain. 04 - 07 Jun 2013.

Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe, Carter, John N. and Nixon, M.S. (2013) On hierarchical modelling of motion for workflow analysis from overhead view. Machine Vision and Applications.

direkoglu, cem and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) On using an analogy to heat flow for shape extraction. Pattern Analysis and Applications, 16, 125-139. (doi:10.1007/s10044-011-0223-0).

Abuzaina, Anas, Alathari, Thamer, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Sphere detection in Kinect point clouds via the 3D Hough transform. At 15th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns 15th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, United Kingdom. 27 - 29 Aug 2013.

Abuzaina, Anas, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Detecting moving spheres in 3D point clouds via the 3D velocity Hough transform. At 11th IEEE Image, Video and Multidimensional Signal Processing Workshop 11th IEEE Image, Video and Multidimensional Signal Processing Workshop, Korea, Republic of. 10 - 12 Jun 2013.

Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John N., Nixon, Mark S., Mörzinger, Rudolf and Thallinger, George (2010) International Conference on Pattern Recognition. At International Conference on Pattern Recognition International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Turkey. pp. 3097-3100.

Reid, Daniel, Nixon, Mark S. and Stevenage, Sarah V. (2014) Soft biometrics; human identification using comparative descriptions. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 36 (6), 1216 -1228. (doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2013.219).

Alathari, Thamer and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) Pressure based segmentation in volumetric images. Bebis, George (ed.) At International Symposium on Vision Computing 2013 International Symposium on Vision Computing 2013. pp. 238-245.

Tome, Pedro, Fierrez, Julien, Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) Soft biometrics and their application in person recognition at a distance. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 9 (3), 464-475. (doi:10.1109/TIFS.2014.2299975).

Bustard, John, Carter, John N., Nixon, Mark S. and Hadid, Abdenour (2014) Measuring and mitigating targeted biometric impersonation. IET Biometrics, 1-7. (doi:10.1049/iet-bmt.2013.0054).

Bustard, John, Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) Targeted impersonation as a tool for the detection of biometric system vulnerabilities. At 2013 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS) 2013 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), United States. 29 Sep - 02 Oct 2013. pp. 1-6. (doi:10.1109/BTAS.2013.6712744).

Bustard, John, Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) Targeted biometric impersonation. At 2013 International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF) 2013 International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF), Portugal. 04 - 05 Apr 2013. 4 pp.

Waller, Ben, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Image reconstruction from local binary patterns. At IEEE International Conference on Signal-Image Technology &amp; Internet-Based Systems (SITIS) IEEE International Conference on Signal-Image Technology &amp; Internet-Based Systems (SITIS), Japan. 02 - 05 Dec 2013. pp. 118-123. (doi:10.1109/SITIS.2013.30).

Ah Reum, Oh and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) On a shape adaptive image ray transform. At 2013 International Conference on Signal-Image Technology &amp; Internet-Based Systems (SITIS) 2013 International Conference on Signal-Image Technology &amp; Internet-Based Systems (SITIS), Japan. 02 - 05 Dec 2013. pp. 100-105. (doi:10.1109/SITIS.2013.27).

Nixon, Mark S. (2013) On gait and soft biometrics for surveillance. At 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS) 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS), Poland. 27 - 30 Aug 2013. (doi:10.1109/AVSS.2013.6636606).

Hadid, Abdenour, Bustard, John and Nixon, Mark S. (2013) Improving gait biometrics under spoofing attacks. At International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP), Italy. 09 - 13 Sep 2013. pp. 1-10.

Jung, Sung-Uk and Nixon, Mark S. (2012) Model-based feature refinement by ellipsoidal face tracking. At 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2012) 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2012), Japan. 11 - 15 Nov 2012. pp. 1209-1212.

Hadid, Abdenour, Bustard, John and Nixon, Mark S. (2012) Can gait biometrics be spoofed? At 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2012) 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2012), Japan. 11 - 15 Nov 2012. 4 pp.

Ariyanto, Gunawan and Nixon, Mark S. (2012) Marionette mass-spring model for 3D gait biometrics. At 2012 5th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics (ICB) 2012 5th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics (ICB), India. 29 Mar - 01 Apr 2012. pp. 354-359. (doi:10.1109/ICB.2012.6199832).

Lowe, Richard and Nixon, Mark S. (2011) Evolving content-driven superpixels for accurate image representation. At ISVC'11 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Advances in Visual Computing - Volume Part I ISVC'11 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Advances in Visual Computing - Volume Part I. pp. 192-201. (doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24028-7_18).

Nixon, Mark S. (2010) Gait and posture: technologies and algorithms for biometrics applications. At IEEE Professional Tutorial Series IEEE Professional Tutorial Series.

Wang, Liang, Zhao, Guoying, Rajpoot, Nasir and Nixon, Mark S. (2010) Special issue on new advances in video-based gait analysis and applications: challenges and solutions. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B (Cybernetics), 40 (4), 982-985.

Doulamis, Anastasios, Doulamis, Nikolaos, van Gool, Luc and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) Guest editorial: Event-based video analysis/retrieval. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 69 (2), 247-251. (doi:10.1007/s11042-013-1726-z).

Sahrim, Musab, Nixon, Mark S. and Carare, Roxana O. (2014) Analysing morphological patterns of blood vessels for detection of Alzheimer's disease. At IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC) IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), Korea, Republic of. 27 Oct - 02 Nov 2014. pp. 1-3. (doi:10.1109/NSSMIC.2013.6829289).

Sahrim, Musab, Nixon, Mark S. and Carare, Roxana O. (2014) On bloodvessel branching analysis for the detection of Alzheimer's disease. At 18th Annual Conference in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2014 18th Annual Conference in Medical Image Understanding and Analysis 2014, United Kingdom. 09 - 11 Jul 2014. 6 pp.

Sébastien, Marcel, Nixon, Mark and Li, Stan (eds.) (2014) Handbook of biometric anti-spoofing: trusted biometrics under spoofing attacks, London, GB. Springer, 281pp. (Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, , (doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-6524-8)) ,

Bustard, John, Ghahramani,, Mohammad, Carter, John N., Zhao, Guoying, Hadid, Abdenour and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) Gait anti-spoofing. In, Sébastien, Marcel, Nixon, Mark and Li, Stan Z. (eds.) Handbook of Biometric Antispoofing: Trusted Biometrics under Spoofing Attacks. London, GB. Springer, pp. 147-163. (Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, , (doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-6524-8)) , (doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-6524-8).

Jaha, Emad Sami and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) Soft biometrics for subject identification using clothing attributes. At IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB 2014) IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB 2014), United States. 29 Sep - 02 Oct 2014. pp. 1-6.

Jaha, Emad Sami and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) Analysing soft clothing biometrics for retrieval. Cantoni, Virginio, Dimov, Dimo and Tistarelli, Massimo (eds.) At Biometric Authentication First International Workshop, BIOMET 2014 Biometric Authentication First International Workshop, BIOMET 2014, Bulgaria. 23 - 24 Jun 2014. pp. 234-245. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-13386-7).

Abuzaina, Anas, Alathari, Thamer, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2013) Detecting moving spheres in 3D point clouds via the 3D velocity Hough Transform. At IEEE 11th Image, Video and Multidimensional Signal Processing (IVMSP) Workshop IEEE 11th Image, Video and Multidimensional Signal Processing (IVMSP) Workshop, Korea, Republic of. 10 - 12 Jun 2013. 4 pp. (doi:10.1109/IVMSPW.2013.6611895).

Alathari, Thamer, Bah, Mamadou T. and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) Femur bone segmentation using a pressure analogy. At 22nd International Confrence on Pattern Recognition 22nd International Confrence on Pattern Recognition, Sweden. 24 - 28 Aug 2014.

Marcel, Sebastien, Nixon, Mark S. and Li, Stan (eds.) (2014) Handbook of Biometric Antispoofing, Springer, 281pp. ,

Bouchrika, Imed, Carter, John N. and Nixon, Mark S. (2016) Towards automated visual surveillance using gait for identity recognition and tracking across multiple non-intersecting cameras. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 75 (2), 1201-1221.

Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe, Xingjie, Wei, Bustard, John, Nixon, Mark S. and Li, Chang-Tsun (2015) On forensic use of biometrics. In, Handbook of Digital Forensics of Multimedia Data and Devices. Wiley. ,

Oh, Ah Reum and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) Adding color sensitivity to the shape adaptive image ray transform. At 10th International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC 2014) 10th International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC 2014), United States. 08 - 10 Dec 2014. pp. 779-788. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-14364-4_75).

Oh, Ah Reum and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) Extending the image ray transform for shape detection and extraction. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 74 (19), 8597-8612.

Abuzaina, Anas, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2014) 3D moving object reconstruction by temporal accumulation. At 2014 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 2014 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), Sweden. pp. 2125-2130. (doi:10.1109/ICPR.2014.370).

Ibrahim, Mina I., Nixon, Mark S. and Mahmoodi, Sasan (2011) The effect of time on ear biometrics. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB), 2011. IEEE..

Sahrim, Musab, Nixon, Mark S. and Carare, Roxana O. (2014) Blood vessel feature description for detection of Alzheimers disease. At 13th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARV) 13th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARV), Singapore. 10 - 12 Dec 2014. pp. 317-322.

Makihara, Yasushi, Matovski, Darko, Nixon, M.S., Carter, John N. and Yagi, Yasushi (2015) Gait Recognition: Databases, Representations, and Applications. In, Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Wiley. ,

Samangooei, Sina and Nixon, Mark S. (2014) On Semantic Soft-Biometric Labels. At Biomet 2014 Biomet 2014. 12 pp, pp. 3-15.

Jaha, Emad Sami and Nixon, Mark S. (2015) Viewpoint Invariant Subject Retrieval via Soft Clothing Biometrics. At International Conference on Biometrics International Conference on Biometrics.

Nixon, Mark S. (2015) Digital Electronics: A Primer, Imperial College Press, 222pp. ,

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark S. and Carter, John N. (2015) Soft Biometric Recognition from Comparative Crowdsourced Annotations. At 6th International Conference on Imaging for Crime Prevention and Detection 6th International Conference on Imaging for Crime Prevention and Detection.

Nixon, Mark S., Correia, Paulo, Nasrollahi, Kamal, Moeslund, Thomas, Hadid, Abdenour and Tistarelli, Massimo (2015) On Soft Biometrics. Pattern Recognition Letters, 68 (2), 218-230. (doi:10.1016/j.patrec.2015.08.006).

forrest, p and nixon, ms (2015) Symmetry Similarity of Human Perception to Computer Vision Operators. At Advances in Visual Computing Advances in Visual Computing. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-27857-5 24).

Lomeli-R., Jaime and Nixon, Mark (2015) The brightness clustering transform and locally contrasting keypoints. At 16th International Conference, CAIP 2015 16th International Conference, CAIP 2015, Malta. 02 - 04 Sep 2015. 12 pp.

Almudhahka, Nawaf, Nixon, Mark and Hare, Jonathon (2016) Human face identification via comparative soft biometrics. At IEEE International Conference on Identity, Security and Behavior Analysis 2016 (ISBA 2016) IEEE International Conference on Identity, Security and Behavior Analysis 2016 (ISBA 2016), Japan. 29 Feb - 02 Mar 2016. 6 pp.

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2016) Soft Biometric Retrieval to Describe and Identify Surveillance Images. IEEE International Conference on Identity, Security and Behavior Analysis (ISBA 2016), Japan. 29 Feb - 02 Mar 2016. 6 pp. (doi:10.1109/ISBA.2016.7477240).

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2016) Analysing comparative soft biometrics from crowdsourced annotations. IET Biometrics, 5 (4), 276-283. (doi:10.1049/iet-bmt.2015.0118).

Lomeli Rodriguez, Jaime and Nixon, Mark (2016) An extension to the brightness clustering transform and locally contrasting keypoints. [in special issue: CAIP 2015] Machine Vision and Applications, 27 (8), 1187–1196. (doi:10.1007/s00138-016-0785-3).

Nixon, Mark (2000) Southampton Gait Database. University of Southampton [Dataset]

Nixon, Mark (2006) Southampton MultiBiometric Tunnel Database. University of Southampton [Dataset]

Jaha, Emad Sami and Nixon, Mark S. (2016) From clothing to identity; manual and automatic soft biometrics. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 11 (10), 2377 - 2390. (doi:10.1109/TIFS.2016.2584001).

Almudhahka, Nawaf Y., Nixon, Mark S. and Hare, Jonathon S. (2016) Unconstrained human identification using comparative facial soft biometrics. BTAS 2016: IEEE 8th International Conference on Biometrics Theory, Applications and Systems, United States. 06 - 09 Sep 2016. 6 pp.

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2016) On categorising gender in surveillance imagery. IEEE 8th International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 2016), United States. 06 - 09 Sep 2016.

Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2016) Retrieving relative soft biometrics for semantic identification. In, 2016 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR). IEEE. , (doi:10.1109/ICPR.2016.7900105).

Nixon, Mark, Guo, Bingchen, Stevenage, Sarah, Jaha, Emad, Almudhahka, Nawaf and Martinho-Corbishley, Daniel (2017) Towards automated eyewitness descriptions: describing the face, body and clothing for recognition. Visual Cognition, 25 (4-6). (doi:10.1080/13506285.2016.1266426).

Abuzaina, Anas, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2017) 3D Motion Estimation By Evidence Gathering. In 2016 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2016). IEEE.. (doi:10.1109/ICPR.2016.7899890).

Akhtar, Zahid, Hadid, Abdenour, Nixon, Mark, Tistarelli, Massimo, Dugelay, Jean-Luc and Marcel, Sebastien (2017) Biometrics: in search of identity and security: (Q & A). IEEE MultiMedia. (In Press)

Lomeli-R., Jaime and Nixon, Mark (2017) Learning salient structures for the analysis of symmetric patterns. Karray, F., Campilho, A. and Cheriet, F. (eds.) In Image Analysis and Recognition. ICIAR 2017. vol. 10317, Springer. 10 pp, pp. 286-295. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-59876-5_32).

Fiedman, Lee, Nixon, Mark S. and Komogortsev, Oleg V. (2017) Method to assess the temporal persistence of potential biometric features: application to oculomotor, gait, face and brain structure databases. PLoS ONE, 12 (6). (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0178501).

Almudhahka, Nawaf, Yousef, Nixon, Mark and Hare, Jonathon (2017) Automatic semantic face recognition. The 12th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Washington, United States. 30 May - 03 Jun 2017. (doi:10.1109/FG.2017.31).

Almudhahka, Nawaf, Yousef, Nixon, Mark and Hare, Jonathon (2018) Semantic face signatures: recognizing and retrieving faces by verbal descriptions. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 13 (3), 706 - 716. (doi:10.1109/TIFS.2017.2765519).

Sun, Yan, Hare, Jonathon and Nixon, Mark (2017) Analysing acceleration for motion analysis. In The 13th International Conference on Signal Image Technology &amp; Internet Based Systems.

Guo, Bingchen, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2018) Fusion analysis of soft biometrics for recognition at a distance. IEEE International Conference on Identity, Security and Behavior Analysis 2018. 11 - 12 Jan 2018. 8 pp.

Guo, Bingchen, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2017) Supervised generalized canonical correlation analysis of soft biometric fusion for recognition at a distance. 8th International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention 2017 (ICDP-2017). 13 - 15 Dec 2017. 6 pp.

Sun, Yan, Hare, Jonathon and Nixon, Mark (2018) Detecting heel strikes for gait analysis through acceleration flow. IET Computer Vision. (doi:10.1049/iet-cvi.2017.0429).

Nguyen, Kien, Fookes, Clinton, Sridharan, Sridha, Tistarelli, Massimo and Nixon, Mark (2018) Super-resolution for biometrics: A comprehensive survey. Pattern Recognition, 78, 23-42. (doi:10.1016/j.patcog.2018.01.002).

Guo, Bingchen, Nixon, Mark and Carter, John (2018) A joint density based rank-score fusion for soft biometric recognition at a distance. International Conference on Pattern Recognition 2018 (ICPR 2018). 20 - 24 Aug 2018.

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